Version of 2020-02-29

Wersja polskaBilanguage versionWersja dwujęzyczna

Grzegorz Jagodziński

Irregular Word Changes

This article treats on the weakly described process which is irregular phonetic development of words. The scale of the process is unknown, however it seems that the more frequently is the using of a given word the more is its chance for irregular changing due to frequency. Besides, especially frequent irregularities can be observed among borrowings.

Some of the data below are thought to be certain, others are under discussion. In some instances crossing of originally different roots might have happened (see e.g. łabędź). Hypothetic reconstructed forms are given. They should have existed in the proto-language if the word had developed regularly. It is known almost for sure that at most only one of such reconstructions can present a really existing form, however we rarely know which of them it is.

Slavic languages
bruzda
  • Pol. bruzda, old spelling brózda ‘furrow’, Russ. borozdá, Slvn. brázda < PS *borzda;
  • Ukr. borozná < PS *borzna.

chorągiew
  • Pol. chorągiew ‘banner, standard’ < PS *xorǫgy;
  • Slvn. karógva < PS *karǫgy,
  • S-Cr. kòrugva, Cz. korouhev < PS *korǫgy;
  • LSorb. chórgoj, USorb. chorhoj < PS. *xorъgy.

daleki
  • Pol. daleki ‘distant’, Cz. dále ‘further, forth’, dálka ‘distance’, daleký ‘distant’, Russ. dalëkij < PS *dalekъ jь or *daljekъ jь;
  • Slvk. ďáľa, diaľka, ďaleký < PS ?;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

dłuto
  • Pol. dłuto, old spelling dłóto ‘chisel’, Cz. dláto, Russ., Ukr. dolotó < PS *dolbto;
  • Bulg. dletó, S-Cr. dlijéto, dléto < PS *delbto (cf. OE delfan ‘to dig’).

gwóźdź
  • Pol. gwóźdź ‘nail (metal fastener)’, Russ. gvozd′ ‘nail, tack, peg’, OCS gvozdь, S-Cr. gvozd ‘forest’ < PS *gvozdь;
  • Pol. goździk ‘clove; carnation (Dianthus)’, Slvn. gȍzd, gọ̑zd ‘forest’, LSorb. gózdź ‘nail (metal fastener)’ < PS *gozdь, *gozdikъ.

jaskółka
  • Pol. jaskółka ‘swallow’ < PS *jastkol-;
  • OPol. jastkułka < PS *jastkul-;
  • Cz. vlaštovka < PS *vlastj-;
  • Slvk. lastovička, USorb. łastojčka, Russ. lastka, lastočka < PS *last-;
  • Bulg. ljástovica < PS *lěst-;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

jaszczur
  • Pol. jaszczur ‘reptile, lizard, salamander’, jaszczurka ‘lizard’, Pruss. estureito < IE *āskeur-;
  • Russ. jaščer < IE *āsker-;
  • USorb. ješćelca < IE *eskel-;
  • S-Cr. gȕšter < IE *gousker-;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

jelito
  • Pol., S-Cr. jelito ‘intestine, gut’ < PS *elito;
  • Pol. dial. lelito < PS *lelito;
  • Ukr. jalytý ‘bowels, intestines’ < PS *ality.

kaprawy
  • Pol. kaprawy ‘lachrymatory, suppurating’, Ukr. kaprávyj, Slvk. kapravý < PS *kapravъ jь;
  • Ukr. dial. koprávyj < PS *kopravъ jь;
  • Slvk. karpavý < PS *karъpavъ jь.

między
  • Pol. między ‘between’ < PS *mędji;
  • Russ. méždu, OCS meždǫ < PS *medjǫ (cf. Pol. miedza ‘balk, bounds’).

motyl
  • Pol. motyl ‘butterfly’ < PS *motyljь;
  • LSorb. mjetel < PS *metъljь;
  • Slvn. metúlj < PS *metuljь;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

olbrzym
  • Pol. olbrzym ‘giant’ < PS *olьbrimъ;
  • ORuth. obrinъ, pl. obre < PS *ob(ъ)rinъ;
  • OCz. ober < PS *obъrъ (< Avar-).

pająk
  • Russ. paúk ‘spider’, S-Cr. pȁūk < PS *paǫkъ;
  • Cz. pavouk, Slvk. pavúk < PS *pavǫkъ;
  • Pol. pająk, Bulg. pájak < PS *pajǫkъ;
  • USorb., LSorb. pawk < PS *paъkъ;
  • Slvn. pȃjək, gen. pȃjka < PS *paьkъ.

pokrzywa
  • Pol. pokrzywa ‘nettle’ < PS *pokriva;
  • Cz. kopřiva < PS *kopriva, cf. Pol. Koprzywnica (a name of a town);
  • Ukr. kropyva < PS *kropiva;
  • Russ. krapiva < PS *krapiva.

słup
  • Pol. słup ‘pole, column, pillar’, USorb. stołp, Cz. sloup, Slvk. stĺp, Ukr. stovp, S-Cr. stȗp < PS *stъlpъ;
  • Russ. stolb ‘post, pole, column, pillar’, S-Cr. stȗb, bułg. stъlb < PS *stъlbъ.

Romance languages
alauda
  • Celt. alauda ‘lark’ (→ Lat.) < IE *alaud-;
  • Span. alondra < Lat. *alaundra;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

hirundo
  • Lat. hirundō ‘swallow’;
  • Port. andorinha, Galic. andoriña < Lat. *handurinia (influenced by Basque ander ‘woman’?);
  • Span. golondrina < Lat. *gulundrina;
  • Catalan oreneta < Lat. *hurineta;
  • Catalan dial. oronella < Lat. *hurinella;
  • Occit. randoleta < Lat. *randuleta;
  • OFr. aronde < Lat. *harundō (Fr. hirondelle ← Lat.);
  • It. rondine < Lat. *rundinem;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

lacerta
  • Lat. lacerta ‘lizard’;
  • Span. Port. lagarta < Lat. *lacarta;
  • It. lucertola < Lat. *locertula;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

locusta
  • Lat. locusta ‘locust’;
  • OFrench languste, French langouste, Span. langosta < Lat. *langusta;
  • cf. borrowed OE loppestre, Eng. lobster (influenced by OE loppe ‘flea’?);
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

luscinia
  • Lat. luscinia ‘nighingale’;
  • It. usignolo < Lat. *usiniolum;
  • It. rusignolo < Lat. *rusiniolum;
  • Fr. rossignol, Occit. rossinhol, Catalan rossinyol < Lat. *rusciniolem;
  • Span. ruiseñor < Lat. *rusciniorem;
  • Rom. privighetoare has a completely different origin;
  • cf. irregularities in IE languages.

Indo-European languages
baran
  • Pol. baran ‘ram’ < IE *bōrōn-;
  • Cz. beran ‘ram’, Alb. berr ‘sheep’, Ital. dial. bera, bar ‘ram’ < IE *ber-, bor-;
  • Gr. arneiós, arnēós, arneṓs (without w-) < IE *Harn-ēi- (*Harsn-ēi-, *Hr̥sn-ēi-);
  • Gr. ársēn, érsēn, gen. ársenos, érsenos ‘manly’ (without w-), OPer. aršan, Skr. r̥ṣa-bha- ‘bull’, Arm. aṙn ‘ram’ < IE *h1ers-, *h1r̥s-;
  • Skr. vr̥ṣṇi-, Av. varšni- ‘ram’ < IE *wr̥sn-i-;
  • Lat. verrēs ‘ram’, gen. verris, Skr. vr̥ṣan- ‘manly, powerful; stallion, bull’, vr̥ṣa-bha- ‘bull’, Lith. ver̃šis ‘calf bull’, Toch. A kayurṣ, B kaurṣe ‘bull’, ON kursi ‘calf bull’ < IE *wers-, *wr̥s-, *gʷoh3u-wr̥s-;
  • Gr. arḗn ‘ram’, gen. arnós, dial. warḗn, Arm. gaṙn, -in ‘lamb’, Skr. úraṇa < IE *wr̥H-en-;
  • see also prosię.

biały
  • Pol. biały ‘white’ < PS bělъjь, Skr. bhālam ‘brightness, shine’ (maybe related to bhāti ‘to shine’), Lith. bolúoti ‘be white’, OIc. bál ‘fire’ < IE *bhēlHo-, *bhōlH-;
  • Lith. báltas ‘white’ (cf. Pol. błoto ‘mud’), balà ‘bog, marsh’, Gr. phalós ‘white’ < IE *bhəlH-;
  • Hitt. alpa ‘cloud’, Gr. alphós ‘white mark’, Lat. albus ‘white’, Umbr. alfu ‘white (f)’, Eng. elf < PG *alb- < IE *əlbho-;
  • perhaps also Pol. lebioda and łoboda ‘pigweed, Chenopodium album’ < PS *elbeda, *olboda, Gr. álphi, álphiton ‘barley, Hordeum sp.’, Alb. elp, elbi ‘t.s.’ < IE *əlbh-;
  • Lith. balánda ‘pigweed’ < IE *bholonH-;
  • see also łabędź.

chłop
  • Pol. chłop ‘peasant, man’, Russ. xolóp ‘villein’, OCS xlapъ ‘slave, serf, servant’ < IE *kHolHp-;
  • Lith. šélpti, šelpiù ‘to help’, pašalpà ‘help’ < IE *ḱelHp-, *ḱolHp-;
  • Eng. help, Goth. hilpan < IE *kelb-.

chłód
  • Pol. chłód ‘coldness’, Russ. xólod, perhaps Dutch hal ‘frozen ground’ < IE *kHoldh-;
  • Lith. šáldyti ‘refrigerate, freeze’ < IE *ḱolHdh-;
  • Pol. słota ‘bad (rainy) weather’, Lith. šáltas ‘cold’, šal̃tis ‘frost’, šálti, šą̃lа ‘get frozen’, Latv. sal̂ts ‘cold’, Av. sarəta-, ModPers. serd, Oss. sald ‘frost’ < IE *ḱolHt- (cf. OCS slana ‘ice’);
  • Eng. cold, Goth. kalds, Lat. gelidus < IE *gelHdh-;
  • Skr. hlādate ‘he refreshes himself’ < IE *ghelHd-;
  • Skr. jаḍаs ‘cold, stiffened’ < IE *geldo-.

czerw
  • Pol. czerw ‘worm, maggot’ < PS *čьrvь < IE *kʷr̥wi-;
  • Pol. czermień ‘calla, bog arum’, Slvn. čȓm ‘worm, maggot’, PS *črmь, Lith. kirmìs ‘worm’, Alb. krimb, OIr. cruim, Welsh pryf, Skr. kr̥mi- < IE *kʷr̥mi-;
  • Lat. vermis, Eng. worm, OE wyrm, Swed. orm ‘serpent’, OCS vьrmьje ‘locust’, ORuth. vermije ‘t.s.’, Lith. var̃mas ‘midge’, Pruss. wormyan ‘red’, Alb. rrime ‘earthworm’, Gr. rhómos ‘woodworm’ < IE *Hwermi-, *Hwr̥mi-;
  • Gr. hélmīs, hélmīns ‘worm’, gen. hélminthos, hélmiggos < IE *Hwelmi-;
  • Gr.pl. líminthes < IE *limi-;
  • Mod.Gr. lebídes, lebítha (irreg.);
  • Norw.dial. alme ‘larva’ < IE *Halm- or *Halbh-n-;
  • Dutch elft ‘larva’, OHG alba < IE *Halbho-, *Halbhi-;
  • see also mrówka.

człowiek
  • Pol. człowiek ‘man, human being’ < PS *čьlo- < IE *kʷĕlo-;
  • Pol. czeladź ‘retinue, entourage’, OCS čelověkъ ‘man, human’, Lith. kìltis, kiltìs, kelỹs ‘kin, generation’, Skr. kúlam ‘herd, multitude, kin’, Gr. télos ‘crowd’, Lat. colere ‘to dwell, inhabit’, Ir. cland, clan ‘clan, kin’ < IE *kʷel-, *kʷl̥-;
  • further connections to gardło, głowa, koło are possible.

cztery
  • Pol. cztery ‘four’ < PS *čьtyry < IE *kʷĕtūrūs;
  • Gr. téttares, OCS četyre < PS *četyre < IE *kʷetūres, *kʷetwəres < PIE *kʷetwHres;
  • Lith. keturì, Skr. catur < IE *kʷetur-;
  • Lat. quattuor < IE *kʷatwor;
  • Goth. fidwōr < IE *petwōr.

daleki
  • Pol. daleki ‘distant’, Cz. dále ‘further, forth’, dálka ‘distance’, daleký ‘distant’, Russ. dalëkij < IE *d(h)āli-;
  • Lith. tolì ‘far away’, tólimas ‘distant’, tõlis ‘distance’, Latv. tālu ‘far’, cf. also Hung. távol ‘far’ < IE *tāli-;
  • maybe Gr. tẽle, tēloũ ‘far away’ (commonly linked to télos, see koło) < IE *tēle;
  • cf. irregularities in Slavic.

*dgʷel-
  • Gr. bdélla ‘leech’ < IE *dgʷel-;
  • Lat. hirūdo < IE *dgʷir-;
  • Germ. Egel, OE igel, Swed. igel < PG *egal- < IE *eghol-;
  • ModLG zullen ‘to suck a soother’, zulp ‘rag to suck’, tulken ‘to suck, to gulp’, Dutch tullen ‘to soak’ < IE *dul-;
  • Gr. neogillós ‘newly sucking’, Gíllos < IE *gil-;
  • Lith. žį̃sti (žiñda, žiñdō) ‘to suck’ < IE *ǵeid- (two voiced stops!);
  • Av. xšvīd- ‘milk’, Lith. svíestas ‘butter’ < IE *ksweid-;
  • Toch. tsuk- ‘to drink’, Skr. dogdhi ‘he milks’, dogha ‘milkman’ < IE *dheugh-;
  • Lith. dėlė ‘leech’ < *dhēl-;
  • perh. Pol. doić ‘to milk’, Skr. dhayati ‘he sucks’, Lat. fēlāre ‘suck’ < IE *dhēi-;
  • Goth. daddjan ‘suck’ < IE *dhodhi-.

drąg
  • Pol. drąg ‘pole, rod’, OIc. drang ‘stone protruding from the ground’, Norw. dreng ‘column, thick stick’ < IE *dhrengh-, dhrongh-;
  • Lith. dránga ‘thick branch’ < IE *dhong- (acute!),
  • Pol. dręczyć ‘torment’, Russ. druk ‘pole, rod’ < IE *dhronk-;
  • Lat. truncus ‘trunk, torso’, Welsh trŵch ‘injured’, Lith. trenkiù, treñkti ‘strike with noise’ < IE *trenk-, *tronk-.

drozd
  • Gr. *drouthos ‘sparrow’ (deduced from proper names), Arm. tordik ‘thrush’, Pol. drozd < IE *drozdh-;
  • OIr. truit, truid ‘starling’ (here?), Lat. turdus ‘thrush’, Gr. *trouthos ‘sparrow’ (deduced from proper names), Pruss. tresde ‘thrush’ < IE *trozdh-, *tr̥zdh-;
  • OIc. þrǫstr ‘thrush’ < *þrastu- < IE *trozd-;
  • MBret. dret ‘starling’ < *druti- < IE *druzdi-;
  • OIr. truit, truid ‘starling’ (here?), MWelsh trydw, OCorn. troet, MBret. tret, Bret. tred < *truti- < IE *truzdi-;
  • OHG drosela ‘thrush’, MHG drostel, Germ. Drossel, OS throsla, OE þrostle < IE *truzdl- or *trusl-;
  • MHG trostel < *drustl- < IE *dhruzdl- or *dhrusl-;
  • Fr. drenne ‘thrush’, older draine, drine ← Gaul. *dresdinā < IE *drezd-;
  • Welsh tresglen, OBret. trascl, tracl ‘seagull’, Corn. traskel ‘thrush’ < IE *trez(d)ko-;
  • Bret. draskl, drask < IE *drez(d)ko-;
  • OE ðrysce, Eng. thrush < *þruskjō- < IE *trus(t)ki- or *truz(d)gi-;
  • Gr. strouthós, stroũthos ‘sparrow’, Lith. strãzdas ‘thrush’, Latv. strazds < IE *strozdh-;
  • Gr. ksouthós, ksoũthros ‘sparrow’ < IE *ksozdh-;
  • perhaps Gr. présbys ‘wren’ < IE *presgʷu-;
  • ON þerna ‘tern’, Dan. terne (→ Eng. tern) < IE *terno-;
  • OHG stara ‘starling’, Germ. Star, Du. sterre, OE stær, Eng. star-ling, OIc. stari < IE *stor-;
  • Lat. sturnus ‘starling’, ModLat. sterna ‘tern’, OE stearn, Du. stern, Pruss. starnite ‘seagull’ < IE *sterno-, *str̥no-;
  • Gr. astralós ‘starling’ < IE *H2str̥lo-.

dziewierz
  • Pol. dziewierz ‘husband’s brother’, Lith. dieverìs, Skr. devár-, Arm. taigr, Gr. dāḗr < IE *daiwer-, *dāiwer-;
  • OE tācor, OHG zeihhur < IE *daiger-;
  • Lat. lēvir < IE *lēwir- (*laiwir-?).

dźwięk
  • Pol. dzwon ‘bell’, dźwięk ‘sound’, Russ. zvuk ‘sound’, Alb. zëh ‘voice’, Arm. jain, Gr. phōnḗ, Toch. kaṃ ‘melody’ < IE *ǵhwon-, *ǵhwōn-, *ǵhwen-ko-, *ǵhwon-ko-;
  • Lat. sonus ‘sound’, Skr. svanás, OIr. senn- ‘play music’, OE swinsian ‘sing’, OHG, Eng. swan < IE *swono-.

gabać
  • Skr. gábhasti- ‘hand’, Lith. gãbana ‘armful’, gõbis ‘greed’, gebė́ti ‘be ready’, Lat. habēre ‘have’, Osk. haf- ‘t.s.’, OIr. gaibid ‘(s)he takes, seizes’, Goth. gabeigs ‘rich’, Eng. give < IE *ghebh-, *ghobh-, *ghōbh-;
  • OPol. gabać ‘to attack’, Pol. nagabywać ‘to molest, to solicit’, Lith. góbti ‘take possession of sth.’, Umbr. hab- ‘have’, Lat. habēre ‘have’, habilis ‘skilful’ < IE *ghəb-;
  • Osk. hip- ‘have’, Pol. gapić się ‘stare’, Germ. gaffen ‘t.s.’ < IE *ghēp-, *ghop-, *ghōp-;
  • OE cefes ‘concubine’, Germ. Kebse ‘t.s.’, ON kefser ‘prisoner of war’ < IE *gəbh-;
  • Russ. zabota ‘care’, zabotit′sja ‘to care’, MLG kapēn ‘stare’, Eng. keep < PG *kōpj- ‘keep, observe, look after’ < IE *ǵāb-;
  • Bret. kavout ‘have’, Welsh caffael ‘attainment’ < IE *kəbh-;
  • Lat. capere ‘catch’, Gr. kṓpē ‘grasp’, Skr. kapaṭī ‘armfull’, Ir. cúan ‘haven’, Eng. haven, Alb. kam ‘I have’, OE hæft ‘prisoner of war’, Goth. hafjan ‘heave’, Eng. heave, have < PG *xabē- < IE *kap-, *kəp-;
  • Russ. xabit′ ‘seize’, ON haptr ‘prisoner of war’, Dutch happen ‘catch’, Germ. happig ‘greedy’, Eng. hap, happy, happen < IE *kHab-;
  • Pol. chapać ‘catch’, Russ. xopit′, OPol. chopić ‘catch, embrace’, Arm. xaphanem ‘I disturb’ < IE *kHapH-, *kHāpH-;
  • Lat. apīscī ‘attain’, Skr. āpnōti ‘he attains’, Hitt. appanzi ‘they take’ < IE *Hap-, *Həp-,
  • Gr. háptō ‘I bind, I fix’, háphē ‘touch’, Arm. aph ‘empty hand’ < IE *HəpH-.

gardło
  • Pol. gardło ‘throat’, gardziel ‘pharynx, throat’, Russ. žerló ‘hole, crater’ < IE *gʷr̥-dhlo-, *gʷr̥-dheli-;
  • Gr. bárathron ‘muzzle, mouth, hole’ < IE *gʷr̥-dhro-;
  • OPol. garciel ‘pharynx, throat’, Lith. gurklỹs, OLith. gurklė < IE *gʷr̥-tli-, *gʷr̥-teli-;
  • Russ. gortan′ ‘larynx’ < PS *gъrtanь < IE *gʷr̥-taH-;
  • Pol. grdyka ‘Adam’s apple’ < IE *gʷru-dhuH-;
  • Pol. krtań ‘larynx’ < PS *grъtanь < IE *gʷru-taH-;
  • Eng. craw, Germ. Kragen ‘throat, collar’, OIr. brágae ‘t.s.’ < IE *gʷrogho-;
  • Gr. brógkhos ‘bronchus, throat’ < IE *gʷrongho-;
  • OPol. kłtać ‘to swallow’, Russ. glotat′, S-Cr. gȗt ‘throat’, Lat. glūtīre ‘swallow’ < IE *glou-t-, *glu-t-;
  • Pol. kark ‘cervix’, Skr. kr̥kāta- ‘neck vertebra’, Gaul. cricon ‘throat’< IE *kr̥ko-;
  • Lat. cervīx, gen. cervīcis ‘cervix, neck’ < IE *kerwīk-;
  • possible further connections to człowiek, koło, krąg.

giąć, kubek
  • Gr. hybóomai ‘become humpbacked’ < IE *Hub-;
  • Gr. hỹbos ‘hump of a camel’, hȳbós ‘humpbacked’, hȳbázō ‘stoop forward and vomit’ < IE *Hūb-;
  • Hitt. ḫupallaš ‘skull, scalp’ < IE *HubhH-l-;
  • Av. xumba ‘jug, crock; hollow’ < IE *kHumb(h)-;
  • Gr. Hes. kýpē ‘hole, pit’, Lat. cūpa ‘barrel, keg, vat; handle’ (→ OHG kuofa, Germ. Kufe ‘tub’), OE hyf ‘hive’, Eng. hive, Skr. kūpa- ‘hole, cave, well’, OSlav *kъpъ ‘vulva’, Pol. kiep ‘stupid man’, kiepski ‘bad, poor, lame’, kpić ‘mock, jest’ < IE *kup-, *kūp-;
  • Lat. cūpula ‘small barrel’ (→ OHG kubil, Germ. Kübel → OCS kъbъlъ, kubъlъ, OPol. gbeł ‘bucket, kibble’, Pol. kubeł and the newer kibel ‘toilet’) < IE *kūp-el-;
  • Pol. kąpać się ‘to bathe’ < IE *kump- or *komp-;
  • Pol. kąpiel ‘bath, bathing’, OCS kǫpělь (< ‘tub’?) < IE *kump-ēl- lub *komp-ēl-;
  • Gr. kampḗ ‘curve, curvature, flexion, distortion’ (→ Lat.-Rom. camba, gamba ‘leg, foot’, Alb. këmbë), kámptō ‘bend, curve, turn’, kampýlos ‘curved, bent’, Lat. campus ‘field’, Goth. hamfs ‘mutilated, lame’, Lith. kãmpas ‘corner, side, hidden place, angle, bail above the horse collar’, kùmpaswelling, tumor, hump’, kum̃pas ‘curved, bent’, OPol. czępiećsquat, sit in squatting’, Pol. kępa ‘holm, hillock, ait, hurst, cluster’, kąt ‘angle, corner, niche’ (< *kamp-to-) < IE *kamp-, *kmp-;
  • Lat. *cuppum ‘skull’, cuppa ‘bowl’ → Eng. cup, Germ. Kopf ‘head’, Skr. śópha- ‘swelling’ < IE *ḱoupH-, *ḱupH-;
  • Lat. caput ‘head’, ON hǫfuð, OE hæfud, hafud, Skr. kapucchala- < *kaput-śala- ‘a bundle of hair on the back of the head’ < IE *kapu-t-;
  • stir. cúach, wal. cawg ‘cup’ < IE *kapu-k-;
  • OE hafola, hafela ‘head’, Skr. kapāla- ‘vessel, cup, skull’ < IE *kapu-l-, *kape-l-, *kapo-l-;
  • OS haban ‘vessel, pot’, OHG havan, MHG haven < IE *kap-no-;
  • OE hēafod ‘head’, Eng. head, ON haufuð < IE *koupu-t-;
  • Goth. haubiþ ‘head’, OHG houbit, Germ. Haupt < IE *koupe-t-;
  • Gr. kýbda ‘with the head forwards’, kýbēbos ‘stooping with the head’, kybistáō ‘tumble head foremost’, kýbos ‘large clay vase; die (dice); vertebra; hollow above the hips on cattle’, kýbiton ‘elbow’, Lat. cubitum ‘elbow’, cubāre ‘bend, lie’, Welsh gogof ‘hollow, den’ (< *upo-kubā), Goth. hups ‘hip’, OE hype, Eng. hip, OE hoppian ‘to hop’ (< *xuppōjan-), Eng. hop, ON hoppa, MHG hupfen, hopfen, Germ. hüpfen < IE *kub-;
  • Skr. kumba- ‘thick end of a bone’, Gr. kýmbē ‘bowl, cup, gouged boat’, Lat. cumba ‘boat’, Eng. hump < IE *kumb-;
  • Gr. kýptō, perf. kékypha ‘bend, lean’, ON húfa ‘cap, hood’, OE hūfe, OHG hūba (< *xūbōn-), Ved. kubhrá- ‘humpbacked cattle’, Pol. kub, kubek ‘mug, tumbler’ < IE *kubh-, *koubh-;
  • Gr. kȳphós ‘hunchbacked’, kỹphos, kȳ́phōsis ‘hump, hunch’ < IE *kūbh-;
  • Lat. acūmen ‘blade, top’ < IE *H2akūbh-;
  • Lat. cacūmen ‘top, summit’, Skr. kakúbh- ‘top of the mountain’ < IE *kakubh-, *kakūbh-;
  • Skr. kumbhá- ‘jug’ < IE *kumbh-;
  • Gr. gampsós ‘curved, crooked’, gampsēlaí ‘jaws of animals’ < IE *gamp-;
  • Gr. gnaptós ‘bent’ < IE *gnap-;
  • Gr. gnámptō ‘bend’, gnamptós ‘bent’, gnamptḗr ‘jaw’ < IE *gnamp-;
  • ON gaupn ‘both hands held together’, OHG gaufana ‘hollow of the hand’, OE geap ‘crooked’ < IE *ghub- (*ghubh-n-);
  • Lith. žiupsnìs ‘hollow of the hand’ < IE *ǵhĕubh-sn-;
  • Norw. guve ‘cower’, Lith. gùbti, gumbù ‘bend, curve’, Latv. gubt ‘bend, become bent’, OCS po-gubiti ‘destroy’, ORuth. gъbnuti ‘bend’, Pol. giąć ‘t.s.’ (instead of gnąć < *gъnǫti < *gъbnǫti) < IE *ghoubh-, *ghubh-;
  • OPol. gibać ‘bend; swing, rock’, Pol. ginąć (*gybnǫti) ‘perish, fall, vanish, disappear’ < IE *ghūbh-;
  • Skr. kṣúbhayati, kṣóbhate ‘shake, rock’ < IE *kseubh-, *ksubh-;
  • Pol. chybotać, OPol. chybać ‘shake, rock, wobble, move’, Pol. chybić ‘miss the aim’, chyba ‘perhaps’ < IE *ksūbh- (or *khūbh-);
  • Goth. biugan ‘bow, bend’, ON bjúga, OHG biogan, Germ. biegen, Lith. baũgurs ‘hill’, Russ. bugór ‘hillock’, bgat′ ‘bend’ < IE *bheugh-, *bhough-, *bhugh-;
  • OE būgan ‘bow, bend’, Eng. bow < IE *bhūgh-;
  • Skr. bhujáti ‘he bends, he shoves’ < IE *bhug-.

głęboki
  • Gr. glyphō ‘carve, bore, channel’, Lat. glūbō ‘peel’, Eng. cleave, OHG klioban, klūbōn, OCz. hlboký ‘deep’ < IE *gleubh-, *gloubh-, *glubh-;
  • Ukr. hlybókyj ‘deep’, Russ. glýboko ‘deeply’ < IE *glūbh- (*glumbh-);
  • OCS glǫbokъ ‘deep’, Russ. glubókij, Pol. głęboki, Skr. jr̥mbhate ‘gape emptily’ < IE *glombh-, *gl̥mbh-;
  • LSorb. głumoki ‘deep’ < IE *gloum-;
  • Skr. gambhirá- ‘deep’ < IE *gombh-;
  • Lith. gilùs ‘deep’ < IE *gĕlu-;
  • Lith. gelmė̃ ‘a deep’ < IE *gelm-;
  • Pol. żłób ‘gully; crib, manger’, Russ. žólob < IE *gelbh-;
  • further connections possible, see gʷelbh-, żołądek.

głos
  • Hitt. kallešta ‘he shouted’, Lat. calāre ‘to summon, announce’, celeber ‘frequented, loud, clear’, Gr. kaléō ‘I call’, kalḗtōr ‘herald’, OHG hellan ‘to resound’, hlamōn ‘to shout’, Germ. Hall ‘sound’, Skr. kala- ‘silently voiced’, uṣā-kala-, kalādhika-, kalāvika- ‘cock’, kala-víŋka- ‘sparrow’, Lith. kalbà ‘language, speech’ < IE *kelH-, *kĕlH-, *kolH-, *kl̥H-;
  • OIc. skjalla ‘to shout’, skǫll ‘scoff, noise’, skellr ‘sound, rumble’, skal ‘alert’, skjal ‘talk’, OE sciellan ‘to shout’, OHG scellan, Germ. Schall ‘sound’, OFris. skelda ‘to scold’, Eng. scold, Germ. schelten, Lith. skélbti, skélbiu ‘to gossip’ < IE *skelH-, *skolH-;
  • OIc. hvellr ‘clearly sounded’, Gr. kýlla ‘pup’, Lith. kãlė, kalė̃ ‘chicken’, Alb. këlüsh ‘young animal, esp. dog’, MIr. cuilén (< *koli-gno-), Wel. colwyn, OCorn. coloin, Bret. kolen ‘pup’ < IE *kʷelH-, *kʷolH-;
  • OIc. skval ‘chatter, wordstream’, skvala ‘to speak loudly, to call’, skvaldr ‘loud talking’, Gr. skýlaks ‘pup, young animal’, Lith. skalìkas ‘hunter dog used for battue’, skãlyti ‘to bark’, Pol. dial. skolić, skulić ‘to whimper’ < IE *skʷelH-, *skʷolH-;
  • Gr. kalláion ‘cock’s comb’, OIr. cailech ‘cock’ (< *kaljākos), Ogham gen. caliācī, Wel. ceiliog, Latv. kaļôt ‘to summon’ < IE *kolj-;
  • OCS klakolъ, Russ. kólokol ‘bell’ < IE *kolkol-;
  • Lith. kañkalas ‘bell-flower’, Pol. kąkol ‘corn cockle’ < IE *konkol-;
  • Lat. clārus ‘loud, clear’, OE hlōwan ‘to low, to roar’, hlētan ‘to hem’ < IE *kleH-;
  • Lat. clāmāre ‘to shout’, Pol. klaskać ‘to clap’ (< *klěskati) < IE *kleH-;
  • OE hlimman ‘to sound, to resound’, hlimme ‘fast current’, hlemm ‘shout’, OHG hlamōn ‘to sough’ < IE *klem-, *klom-;
  • Gr. klónos ‘battle turmoil’, OE hlynn ‘shout; fast current’, hlynnan, hlynian, hlynsian ‘to shout’, hlynrian ‘to thunder’, gehlyn ‘scream’, Skr. krándati ‘he shouts’, Latv. klentēt ‘to curse’, OCS klęti, klьnǫ ‘to curse, to swear’, Pol. kląć, klnie < IE *klen-, *klĕn-, *klon- (mixed with *klin- ‘to bend, to bow, to stoop’);
  • Lat. clangor ‘sound, rattle’, Gr. klaggḗ < IE *klang-;
  • Pol. chełpić się ‘to boast’ (< *xъlpiti sę) < IE *kHel-p-;
  • Pol. chełbić się ‘to boast’, chluba ‘pride, credit’ < IE *kHel-bh-;
  • Pol. chrobry ‘courageous, gallant’ (< *xorbrъ) < IE *kHor-bh-;
  • Wel. galw ‘to shout, to summon’, MBret. galu ‘call, appeal’ (< *gol-w-); MIr. gall ‘fame, glory’ (< *gol-n-); Skr. gargara- ‘a certain musical instrument’, OCS glagolъ ‘word’, glagolati ‘speak’, Russ. gologólit ‘to chatter’ (<*gol-gol-); MHG kalzen, kelzen ‘to gossip, to chatter’; OFris. kaltia ‘speak’ (< *gol-d-); Lat. gallus ‘cock’, ON kall ‘calling’, kalls ‘stirring, instigating’, OE callian ‘call’, Eng. call, OHG kallōn ‘to gossip’, Osset. ɣalas ‘voice’, Lith. gal̃sas ‘sound, echo’, Pol. głos ‘voice’ (< *gol-dh-s-) < IE *gol-;
  • ON klapp ‘crash’, OHG klapf ‘rumour, rumble, hit, shock’ < IE *gla-b-;
  • OE clatrian ‘to clatter’, Germ. Klatz ‘blot’ < IE *gla-d-;
  • Gr. glázō ‘I let the song sound’, ON klaka ‘to twitter’, klakkr ‘ink-stain, clod, cloud’, OE clacu ‘insult’, Eng. clack, Germ. Klecks ‘ink-stain’ < IE *gla-g-;
  • OHG klinkan ‘to sound’, Eng. clink, Swed. klinka ‘to bell, to clank’ < IE *gleng-;
  • Skr. garhati ‘he complains, he condemns’, garhā ‘reprimand’, gr̥hú- ‘beggar’, Av. gərəzaiti ‘he complains’, Osset. ɣärzun ‘to groan’; OHG klaga ‘complaint’, klagōn ‘to complain’, Germ. Klage, klagen, MIr. glām ‘shout, curse’ (< *glagh-smā) < IE *galgh-, *gl̥gh-, *glagh-;
  • OHG klingan ‘to sound’, Germ. klingen < IE *glengh-;
  • Lith. girdė́ti ‘hear’, gar̃sas ‘sound; glory, fame’ < IE *ger-dh-, *gor-dh-;
  • OIc. gjalla ‘to resound’, galdr ‘singing, incantation’, Eng. yell, Germ. gellen ‘to resound’, OE galan ‘to sing, to yell’, Got. gōljan ‘to say hello’, Russ. galit′sja ‘to mock’, dial. galúcha, gal′ ‘laughter’ (< *ghōl-), Skr. gharghara- ‘strumming; alert’ (< *ghol-ghol-), OE gielpan ‘to boast’, MHG gelpfen, gelfen (< *ghel-b-), OHG gelbōn ‘to deceive’, Skr. pragalbha- ‘firm, resolute, brave’, Lith. gul̃binti ‘to praise’ (< *ghel-bh-), OHG galm ‘alert’ (< *ghol-m-), Ic. gelta ‘to bark’, OHG gelzōn ‘to shout’ (< *ghel-d-) < IE *ghel-, *ghol-, *ghōl-;
  • MHG glīen ‘to shout’ < IE *ghleH-;
  • Latv. valoda ‘speech, language’, OCS volati ‘to call’, Pol. wołać < IE *wol-.

głowa
  • Pol. głowa ‘head’, Lith. galvà, ON kollr ‘skull, head, round mountain top’ < IE *golw-;
  • Pol. goły ‘naked’, gałąź ‘branch’, Latv. gāla ‘glazed frost’, Arm. kołr ‘branch’, Germ. kahl ‘bald–headed’, OE calu, Eng. callow < IE *golo-;
  • Pol. dial. żółw ‘swell, tumour’, Russ. želvák, Skr. gúlma- ‘bud, tumour’ < *žьly, *žьlve < IE *gl̥w-;
  • Arm. glux ‘head’ < IE *ghōlū-ko-;
  • Gr. khélȳs, khelōnē ‘tortoise’, Eol. khelýnā < IE *gheloHu-, *ghelHu-;
  • Pol. żółw ‘tortoise’, PS *žьly, *žьlve (cf. Lat. testa ‘head’ : testūdō ‘tortoise’), Lat. fulvus, flāvus ‘yellow’ < IE *ghl̥HuH-;
  • Lat. calva ‘bald head, skull’, Skr. ati-kulva- ‘with extremely thin hair’, kulva- ‘bald–headed’, Av. kauruua- ‘thin-haired’ < IE *kl̥H-wo-);
  • Pol. czoło ‘forehead’, Lith. kélti ‘raise’, Lat. ex-cellere ‘be taller, protrude, excell’, celsus ‘tall, haughty’ < IE *kelH-;
  • MIr. coll ‘head, chief’ < IE *kolH-n-;
  • possible further connections to człowiek, koło, krąg.

*ǵneib-
  • Lith. gnī́bti ‘pinch’, gnaĩbis ‘a pinch’ < IE *gneib-;
  • Eng. knife, Germ. kneifen ‘pinch’ < IE *gneibh-,
  • Lith. žnī́bti ‘peck, pinch’, Latv. zniêbt ‘press hard, throttle’, žņaîbît ‘press, pinch’ < IE *ǵneib-;
  • Lith. kneĩbti ‘collect, rake up, tinker, stick’ < IE *kneibh-;
  • ON hnīpa ‘hang down one’s head, be sad’, OE hnipian ‘let one’s head hang down, bend, be sad, be sleepy’, Lith. knìbti ‘sink’, Latv. kniêbt ‘pinch’ < IE *kneib-;
  • Latv. knĩpêt ‘pinch’ < IE *kneip-;
  • Lith. šnĩpti ‘pinch’, Latv. šņiêpt ‘pinch’ < IE *ḱneip-;
  • Latv. šņaîbît, šņiêbt ‘pull a wry face’ < IE *ḱneib-.

gniazdo
  • Pol. gniazdo ‘nest’, OCS gnězdo < IE *g(h)noizdo-;
  • Lith. lìzdas < IE *lizdo-;
  • Eng. nest, Lat. nīdus, Skr. nīḍa- < IE *nizdo-.

gnida
  • Pol. gnida ‘nit’, Latv. gnĩda, gņĩda, Ic., ON gnit, OSwed. gnether, Swed. gnet, Dan. gnid < IE *ghnid-;
  • Lith. glìnda < IE *ghlindā;
  • Lat. lēns, gen. lendis < IE *ghlend-;
  • Eng. nit, OE hnitu, OHG niz, Germ. Niss, Nisse, Gr. konís, Alb. thëri, thëni < IE *ḱHʷnid-;
  • OIr. sned, Welsh nedd, nedden < IE *snid-;
  • Ic. nit, Arm. anic < IE *Hʷnid-;
  • Skr. likṣā < *Hʷlidḱā.

gród
  • Pol. gród ‘fenced city’, Russ. górod ‘town’, Ukr. hórod, Lith. gar̃das ‘fence, pen, enclosure, bed, hurdle’, gardinỹs ‘fence’, gardìs ‘rack of a cart’, Alb. gardh ‘fence’, Skr. gr̥hás ‘house, habitation, home’, Av. gərəða- ‘den dwelled by daevas, homestead’, Toch. B kercci, kerciye ‘palace’, Phryg. Manegordum ‘Manes’s town’, Goth. gards ‘house’, ‘yard’, aurtigards ‘garden’, weinagards ‘vineyard’, garda ‘cattle-yard’, OIc. garðr ‘hedge’, ‘yard’, ‘garden’, gerði ‘fenced plot of ground’, Eng. yard, Germ. Garten ‘garden’, Rossgarten ‘pasture’ (for horses), Gürtel ‘belt’, Gr. korthílai ‘threads, conglomerations, mounds’, kórthys ‘heap’ < IE *ghordh-, *gherdh-;
  • Pol. ogród ‘garden’, ogrodzenie ‘fence, enclosure’, przegroda ‘barrier, compartment’, zagroda ‘farm, enclosure’, nagroda ‘prize, award’, bez ogródek ‘bluntly, baldly’, żerdź ‘pole’, Cz. hráze ‘wall of clay’, ‘fence of a garden’, ‘dam’, Russ. vinográd ‘vineyard’, ‘grapevine’, goróža ‘fence’, ogoród ‘garden’, Ukr. horód, Latv. gar̃ds ‘enclosure for pigs’ < IE *ghord-, *gherd-;
  • Lith. žar̃dis ‘field-patch’ < IE *ǵhordh-;
  • Russ. zoród ‘heap, hayrick, fenced place for a hayrick’, Lith. žárdas ‘scaffold, fenced place for drying flax or peas’, Pruss. sardis ‘fence’, Phryg. Manezordum ‘Manes’s town’ < IE *ǵhord-;
  • OPol. ogartać ‘get dressed’, wygartać ‘dig the ashes from the oven’, Pol. garść ‘handful’, ogarniać ‘embrace’, ‘comprehend’, zagarniać ‘grab, scoop’, Cz. hrnout ‘gather, collect, rake’, Russ. gornút′ ‘rake hay’, OIr. gort ‘sown field’, Welsh garth ‘hurdle, field’, Lat. cohors, gen. cohortis ‘enclosure’, ‘guard’, hortus ‘garden’, OLat. ‘estate, villa’, Gr. khórtos ‘fenced place’, ‘hay, fodder’, Hitt. gurta ‘citadel, acropolis’ < IE *ghort-, *ghort-n-, *ghort-ti-;
  • perhaps also OE targe, OHG zarga ‘fence, enclosure’, Germ. Zarge ‘door-frame’, Eng. target, PG *targō-, *targōn- ‘binding, enclosure, shield’, Lith. dar̃žas ‘garden’ < IE *dorǵh-;
  • see also krąg, targ.

gżegżółka
  • Pol. dial. gżegżółka ‘cuckoo (Cuculus canorus)’ < IE *ghugheghughe-lu-;
  • Pol. dial. zazula < IE *ǵhōǵhou-li-;
  • ORuth. zegzica < IE *ǵheghuǵhī-;
  • ORuth. žеgъzulja < IE *gheghuǵhou-li-;
  • Lith. gegužė̃ < IE *gheghuǵh-i-.

*gʷelbh-
  • Gr. délear ‘bait’ < IE *gʷelew-;
  • Skr. gárbha- ‘uterus, womb’, Av. garəwa-, Gr. delphýs < IE *gʷelbh-;
  • Lat. vulva, volva ‘womb’ < IE *gʷolw-;
  • Lat. volba ‘womb’ < IE *gʷolbh-;
  • Lat. bulba ‘womb’ < IE *bolbh-;
  • Eng. womb, Germ. Wamme < IE *wombh-;
  • OHG kilbur ‘female lamb’, OE cilforlamb, Eng. calf, Germ. Kalb < IE *gelbh-,*golbh-;
  • further connections possible, see głęboki, żołądek.

imię
  • Pol. imię ‘name’, OCS imę, Pruss. emmens, Alb. emër, Gr. Laconian ényma < IE *H1ěnH3mn̥-;
  • Lat. nōmen , Skr. nā́man- < IE *(H3)noH3mn̥-;
  • Gr. ónoma, Phryg. onoman, Arm. anun, Toch. A ñom, Goth. namo, Eng. name, Germ. Name < IE *H3nH3mn̥-;
  • Hitt. lāman- < IE *(H3)loH3mn̥-;
  • Luv. álaman-, Lyc. alãman- < IE *H3lH3mn̥-.

jaskółka
  • Pol. jaskółka ‘swallow’, Russ. lastočka, cf. above, perh. IE *lāst-;
  • Lith. lakštingala ‘nightingale’ (after lakstaũ, lakstýti ‘fly’?);
  • Lat. luscinia ‘nightingale’ < IE *luskaniā, perh. instead of *nokt-kaniā, cf. above;
  • Eng. nightingale ‘nightingale’ (after OE galan ‘to sing, to yell’) < IE *nokt-kalia;
  • Gr. khelīdṓn, khelidwṓn ‘swallow’ < IE *ǵhelidw-;
  • Gr. kíkhlē ‘thrush’ < IE *ǵhi-ǵhel-;
  • Lat. hirundo ‘swallow’ < IE *ǵhirund-, cf. above;
  • Alb. dallëndyshe < IE *ǵhol-ont-;
  • perh. Lith. kregždė̃, krẽgždė < IE *kredǵh-;
  • Eng. -gale in nightingale, Germ. Nachtigall, Mid.Ir. gelbund ‘sparrow’, Lith. lakštingala ‘nightingale’ < IE *ǵhol-, *ǵhel-;
  • indirect connection to Eng. swallow, Dutch zwaluw, OHG swalawa, Germ. Schwalbe, ON svala ‘swallow’ < IE *swolu- ‘yellow-grey’ (with *ǵhelu- ‘yellow’ changed);
  • Slavic *solvьjь ‘nightingale’, Pol. słowik, Pruss. salowis, cf. OHG salo, salawēr ‘dark, muddy’, Eng. sallow < IE *solu-, *solōu-;
  • Gr. koloiós ‘jackdaw’ < IE *ḱol-;
  • Celt. alauda ‘lark’ (→ Lat.) < IE *alaud-, cf. above;
  • Vulg. Lat. *vannellum ‘lapwing’ (→ Fr. vanneau), connected to Ir. fáinle, fáinleog ‘swallow; swift’, OIr. fannall, Scott. fainleag, Welsh gwennol, Bret. gwennili < IE *Hwet- ? — cf. Gr. aetma ‘flame’ (?), áēma ‘blowing’, Lat. vannus ‘fan’;
  • Ir. áinle, áinleog with irregular loss of f-.

jaszczur
  • Pol. jaszczur ‘reptile, lizard, salamander’, jaszczurka ‘lizard’ < IE *āskeur-;
  • Russ. jaščer < IE *āsker-;
  • Pruss. estureito < IE *ēskur-;
  • Latv. šķir̃gata, šķìrgaîlis, Alb. hardhëlë, hárdhje < IE *skr̥g-, *skerǵ-;
  • Gr. askarís ‘worm, larva’ < IE *askarid-;
  • Gr. Hes. skarís ‘worm’ < IE *skarid-;
  • Gr. akrís ‘locust, grasshopper’ < IE *akrid-;
  • Skr. śalabha- ‘locust’ < IE *ḱolobh-;
  • Lith. skėrỹs ‘locust’ < IE *skēri-;
  • Lat. lacerta ‘lizard; mackerel’ < IE *dlaker-, cf. above and OFrench. maquerel ‘mackerel’;
  • Gr. drákōn ‘dragon, snake’ < IE *drakon-;
  • Lat. locusta ‘locust’ and ‘lobster’ < IE *dlokust-;
  • cf. irregularities in Slavic and Romance.

*jem-
  • Latv. jumis, juma, jume ‘two joint things’ < IE *jumi-, *jumā-;
  • Skr. yamá- ‘twin’, Av. yə̄ma-, OIr. emuin ‘twins’, emnatar ‘they double’ < IE *jemo-;
  • Lat. geminus, -a, -um ‘twin, double’ < IE *gem-;
  • Lith. kemerĩs ‘fruit or nut accreted of two’ < IE *kem-.

język
  • Pol. język ‘tongue’, PS *ęzy, Pruss. insuwis < IE *n̥ǵhuH-;
  • Pol. jęzor < IE *n̥ǵhor-;
  • Pol. ozór < IE *aǵhor-;
  • Lith. liežùvis, Arm. lezu < IE *leiǵhuH-;
  • Ir. ligur < IE *liǵhuH-;
  • Lat. lingua < IE *ln̥ǵhuH-;
  • Skr. jihvā́ < IE *ǵiǵhuH-;
  • Lat. gingīva ‘gum’ < IE *ǵn̥ǵhiHw-;
  • Gr. glōkhís, gen. glōkhĩnos ‘tip, tonguelet’, glõtta, glõssa ‘tongue’ < IE *gloHǵhi-;
  • Av. hizvā- (f), hizū- (m), Alb. gjúhë < IE *siǵhuH-;
  • OLat. dingua, Goth. tuggo, OHG zunga, Germ. Zunge, Eng. tongue < IE *dn̥ǵhuH-;
  • OIr. tengae, MWel. tafawt, tauawt < IE *tn̥ǵhwāt-;
  • toch. A käntu < IE *ǵn̥dhuH-.

kamień
  • Pol. kamień, kamy-k ‘stone’ < IE *kām-;
  • OIc. hamarr ‘rock’, Eng. hammer < IE *kam- (*kəm-);
  • Lith. akmuõ ‘stone’, Skr. aśman- ‘stone’, Gr. ákmōn ‘anvil’ < IE *akm-, *aḱm-.

*kend-
  • Hitt. ḫandaiš, ḫandaš ‘heat’, OIr. and- ‘kindle’, Gr. ánthraks ‘coal’ < IE *Handh-;
  • Arm. antʰel ‘charcoal’ < IE *Hant-;
  • Lat. candeō ‘shine’, candor ‘bright light’, candidus ‘bright’, candidātus ‘dressed in white’, candēla ‘candle’, incendō ‘set on fire’, Wel. cann ‘brilliant’, MBret. cann ‘full moon’, Gr. kándaros ‘coal’ < IE *kand-;
  • Skr. candrá- ‘brilliant’ < IE *kend-;
  • Skr. śāśad- ‘excel’, Gr. Dor. kékadmai (Att. kékasmai, perf. of kaínymai) < IE *ḱe-ḱn̥d-;
  • Skr. chándas- ‘hymn of praise’, chadáyati ‘it appears’, Alb. hënë ‘moon’ < IE *sḱend-, *sḱond-, *sḱn̥d-;
  • Lat. carbō ‘charcoal’ < IE *kardh-;
  • Lat. cremō ‘I burn’ < IE *kredh-m-.

koło
  • Pol. koło ‘wheel’, Pruss. kelan, Latv. du-celes ‘dray’, Alb. sjell ‘turn, bring’, Skr. carati ‘it moves’, ON hvel ‘wheel’, Gr. pólos ‘axis, pivot’, pélomai ‘to move, to turn’, télos ‘goal’, Lat. colus ‘distaff’, Welsh pel ‘ball’ < IE *kʷelHo-, *kʷolHo-;
  • Lat. colubra ‘snake’ (similar to a distaff?) < IE *kʷelHo-sr-;
  • Gr. khélydros ‘water snake’ < IE *kHelu-;
  • Gr. kýklos ‘wheel’, Skr. cakra-, OE hwēol, hweowol, hweogol, Eng. wheel, Toch. A kukäl ‘wagon’, Lith. kãklas ‘neck’ < IE *kʷekʷlo-;
  • Lith. kálnas ‘mountain’, Lat. collum ‘hill’ < IE *kolH-;
  • OS holm ‘hill’, OE holm ‘island’, Lat. columen ‘hill’ < IE *kl̥H-m-;
  • Goth. OHG hals ‘neck’, Lat. collum ‘neck’ < IE *kolH-s-, *kolH-n-;
  • Pol. kolano ‘knee’, pokolenie ‘generation’ (cf. analog. Lat. genū ‘knee’ and genus ‘kin’), Lith. kelė́nas, kelỹs ‘knee’, Gr. kõlon ‘joint’ < IE *kelHo-, *kolHo-, *kōlHo-;
  • further connections to człowiek, gardło, głowa, krąg are possible;
  • words of a similar form express the idea of the wheel or rolling in many languages in the word, and may be echoic, ex. Hebrew galgal גַּלְגַּל, gullā(h) גֻּלָּה, gālîl גָּליִל, all meaning, among others, ‘circle’.

koza
  • Pol. koza ‘goat’, kozioł ‘he-goat’, kożuch ‘shipskin coat’, OCS kozьlъ ‘he-goat’, koža ‘goat hide’, kožuxъ ‘shipskin coat’, Alb. keth, kedhi ‘kid’, Goth. hakuls ‘coat’, OIcel hǫkull, OE hækla ‘t.s.’ < IE *koǵ-, *koǵā (cf. Tatar käǯä ‘goat’, Bashk. käzä, Turkm. gäči, Turk., Azer. keçi, Chagatay käčgi, Chuv. kačaga, Hung. kecske, perhaps also Turk. koç ‘ram’, Azer. qoç, Hung. kos);
  • OE hǣcen ‘kid’, MDutch hoekijn (< *hōkīna-) < IE *kōǵ-;
  • Pol. jaź ‘ide, orfe, the fish Leuciscus idus’, OCS azьno ‘goat hide’, ORuss. jazьno ‘t.s.’, Lith. ožkà ‘goat’, ožỹs ‘he-goat’, Pruss. wosee (from Balt. → Finn. vuohi), Skr. ajás ‘he-goat’, ajā́ ‘goat’, MPers. azak, Pers. azg, OIr. ag ‘he-goat’ < IE *H2aǵ- (cf. Arab. ˁanzatun ‘goat’, Akk. enzu, ezzu, azzatu, ḫazzatu; Qazaq äškĭ ‘goat’, Kyrg. eški, ModUyghur dial. öškä, Adyg. āča ‘he-goat’, Dargwa ˁeža);
  • Gr. aĩks, gen. aigós ‘goat’, Thrac. aiz, Arm. ayc, Alb. edh ‘kid’, dhi (< *aiǵijā) ‘goat’, Skr. eḍa-, eḍaka- ‘a kind of sheep’ < IE *Haiǵ-, *Haiǵd-;
  • Av. izaēna-, īzaēna- ‘made of leather’ < IE *Hiǵ-,*Hīǵ-;
  • Skr. chaga-, chāga- ‘goat’ < IE *sḱegʷ-;
  • Eng. sheep, Germ. Schaf < PG *skǣpa- < IE *sḱeHb-;
  • Alb. cap, cjap, sqap ‘ram, he-goat’, Rom. ţap, Pol. skop ‘castrated ram’ < IE *skep-, *skop-;
  • Eng. kid ← ON kið, OHG kizzi, Germ. Kitze < IE *gidhjo-;
  • Lat. haedus ‘kid’, Eng. goat, ON geit, Germ. Geiß, Goth. gaits < IE *ghaid- (cf. Akk. gadū ‘kid’, Arab. gadjun, Hbr. gəḏî, Berber aģăjd-);
  • Gr. Lakon. díza ‘goat’, Arm. tik ‘goatskin; animal skin’ < IE *dig-;
  • Germ. Ziege ‘goat’, OHG ziga < PG *tigō, OHG zickīn ‘little goat’, Germ. Zicke, OE ticcen ‘kid’ < PG *tikkīna- < *tignīna-, perhaps Pol. dziki ‘wild’, Lith. dỹkas < IE *dik-, *dīk- (cf. Georg. tʰxa ‘goat’, Kyrg. teke);
  • perhaps OPol. dziwy, dziwoki ‘wild’ < IE *dīw-;
  • all above mentioned names are probably borrowed;
  • cf. also wieprz.

krąg
  • Pol. krąg ‘circle’, kręg ‘vertebra’ (secondarily), OE hring ‘circle, ring’, Eng. ring, Umbr. krenkatrum, cringatro ‘sash, belt’ < IE *krengh-, *krongh-;
  • Lat. circus ‘wheel, circle’, Gr. Hell. kírkos < IE *kirko-;
  • Gr. kríkos ‘wheel’ < IE *kriko-;
  • Lat. carcer ‘gaol (circular enclosure)’ <IE *kr̥kro-;
  • Toch. A wärkänt, B yerkwanto ‘wheel’ < IE *wr̥g-;
  • Hitt. ḫurki ‘wheel’, Gr. érgō, eérgō, eírgō, heírgō ‘surround; exclude, chase away, deter’ < IE *Hʷerg-, *Hʷr̥g-;
  • Eng. quirk < IE *gʷerg-;
  • ON kringr ‘circle’, Lith. grę̃žti, gręžiù ‘to turn, to wring’ < IE *grenǵh- or *gʷrenǵh-;
  • possible further connections to gardło, głowa, gród, koło, krzywy, skrzydło;
  • an original semantic connection between wheel or ring and ringing is testified by Eng. ring < PG *xrengan- ‘to ring’ and ring ‘circular thing’, and by parallel Slavic *kolkolъ ‘bell’, perhaps connected to kolo ‘wheel’, see głos.

krzywy
  • Lat. curvus ‘curved, bent’ < IE *kr̥wo-;
  • OIr. corr, MWel. cwrr ‘crooked’ < IE *kurso-;
  • Gr. kyrtós ‘curved, humpy’ < IE *kurto-;
  • Lat. crispus ‘curly (of hair)’, crīnis ‘hair of the head’, crista ‘crest, plume’, crīsāre ‘to move the haunches’, Wel. crych ‘curly (of hair)’, Goth. of-, us-hrisjan ‘to shake off, out’, OE, OS hrissan ‘to shake, shiver’, OIc. hris ‘shrubs’, OE hris ‘branch, brush’ < IE *kreis-, *kris-;
  • Gr. korōnís ‘curved line, ornament’, korōnós ‘curved’ < IE *koroHno-;
  • Pol. kręty ‘winding’, kręcić ‘turn, twist’, krzątać się ‘bustle’, Russ. krutój ‘steep’, Lith. krañtas ‘t.s.’, Skr. kr̥ṇati ‘is spinning, twisting thread’ < IE *krent-, *kront-, *kr̥n-;
  • Pruss. corto ‘fence’, Goth. haúrds ‘plaited gates’, Lat. crātēs ‘plait, fence, railing’ < IE *kr̥Ht-;
  • Pol. krzywy ‘crooked’, Lith. kreĩvas ‘curved’ < IE *kreiwo-;
  • possible further connections to krąg, skrzydło.

lis / wilk
  • Gr. lýkos ‘wolf’ < IE *lukʷo-;
  • Luwian walwa, walwi ‘lion’, Toch.B walkwe ‘wolf’, OIr. olc ‘bad, evil’, ON ylgr ‘she-wolf’, Av. vəhrka ‘wolf’, Pers. gurg, Skr. vŕ̥ka, Alb. ujk, Lith. vil̃kas ‘wolf’, vìlkė ‘she-wolf’, Pol. wilk ‘wolf’, wilczyca ‘she-wolf’ < PS *vьlkъ, *vьlči- < IE *wl̥kʷo-, *wl̥kʷiH-;
  • MWelsh llewyrn ‘foxes’, Welsh llywarn, Bret. louarn, lowern, Lith. lãpė, Pruss. lape < IE *lop-erno-, *lop-jā-;
  • Gr. alōpós ‘fox’ < IE *H2loH3po-;
  • Lat. vulpēs, volpēs ‘fox’, Hitt. ulipna-, ulippana- ‘wolf’, Eng. wolf, MHG wülpe, OHG wulpa, PG *wulfa- ‘wolf’, *wulbjō- ‘she-wolf’, Av. urupi- ‘marten, dog’ < IE *wl̥po-, *wl̥pi-, *wl̥pjaH-, *wl̥pei-;
  • Lat. lupus ‘wolf’ < IE *lupo-;
  • Av. raopi- ‘fox, jackal’ < IE *loupi-;
  • Skr. lopāka, lopāśa ‘jackal’, MPer. rōpās ‘fox’ < IE *loupēko-, *loupēḱo-;
  • Pol. lis ‘fox’, Russ. lisa < IE *leipso- (*leipḱo-);
  • Latv. lapsa ‘fox’ < IE *lopsā- (*lopḱā-);
  • Gr. alṓpēks, gen. alṓpekos, Arm. ałuēs, gen. ałuesu < IE *H2loH3peḱ-;
  • irreg. Mod.Gr. alepoũ;
  • Lat. volpēx ‘fox’, Lith. vilpišỹs ‘wild cat’, Middle Persian gurpak, Modern Persian gurba ‘house cat’ < IE *wl̥piḱ-, *wl̥pek-;
  • Goth. faúhō ‘fox’, ON fóa, fúa < IE *pukā-;
  • Dutch vos, Eng. faws < IE *pus-;
  • Eng. fox, vixen (irreg. v-), Germ. Fuchs < IE *puks-.

łabędź
  • Pol. łabędź ‘swan’ < PS *olbǫdь < IE *olHbhondh-;
  • OPol. also łabęć, Cz. labuť < PS *olbǫtь < IE *olHbhont-;
  • Russ. lébed′ < PS *elbedь, OE ielfetu, Eng. elk ‘swan, goose’ < IE *elHbhed-;
  • MHG albiz < PG *albet- < IE *olHbhed-;
  • OIc. ǫlptr < PG *albut- < IE *olHbhud-;
  • Lith. balañdis ‘pigeon’, Oset. bælond < IE *bolondh-;
  • Pol. gołąb ‘pigeon’, Russ. golubój ‘pale blue’, Pruss. golimban ‘blue’, Lith. gelumbė̃ ‘cloth’ < IE *golombh-;
  • Lat. columba ‘pigeon’, Arm. salamb ‘francolin’ < IE *ḱolombh-;
  • Gr. kólymbos ‘diving, grebe (Podiceps), diver (Colymbus)’, kolymbáō ‘I dive’, kolýmbaina ‘kind of crab’ < IE *ḱolumb-;
  • Gr. kolympháō ‘I dive’ < IE *ḱolumbh-;
  • Gr. kolýbdaina ‘kind of crab’ < IE *ḱolubj-;
  • Lat. palumbēs ‘wood pigeon’ < IE *polomb- (*pəlomb-);
  • Arm. aławni ‘pigeon’ < IE *pl̥Hbh-ni- (*Hl̥Hbh-ni-);
  • Pers. kabūtar ‘pigeon’ (→ Pruss. keutaris) < IE *kobuH-;
  • Lith. gul̃bė, gulbė̃ ‘swan’, S-Cr. dial. gūb < IE *gl̥bh-;
  • Pol. dial. kiełp ‘swan’, S-Cr. kup, Russ. dial. kolp′ ‘spoonbill’ < PS *kъlpь < IE *kl̥p-;
  • see also biały.

łgać
  • Pol. łgać ‘to lie, to tell lies’, Goth. liugan ‘to lie’, laugnjan ‘to deny’, OHG lugî ‘a lie’, OLith. luginaite ‘insidious, treacherous’, OIr. gen.sg. logaissi ‘of a liar’, follugaim ‘I hide’ < IE *leugh-;
  • OIc. lokka ‘to deceive’, Lith. lūgóti ‘to ask for’, Latv. lùgti < IE *lug-.

mnogi
  • Pol. mnogi ‘plural, numerous’, OCS mъnogъ < IE *munogh-;
  • Goth. manags < IE *monogh-;
  • Eng. many, OE maniġ ‘large, sufficient, many’< IE *monegh-;
  • OIr. meinicc ‘frequent, abundant’, MWelsh mynych < IE *meneghk-.

motyl
  • Goth. maþa ‘worm’, OE maþa, maða ‘grub, worm, maggot’, OS matho, Du. made ‘maggot’, OHG mado ‘maggot, worm’, Germ. Made ‘maggot’, Pol. motyl ‘butterfly’, Russ. motylëk ‘little butterfly’, motýl′ ‘maggot of a gnat’, cf. above < IE *móton-, *motuHli-;
  • cf. Arm. matʰil ‘louse’, Georg. matil ‘worm’;
  • MHG matte ‘moth’ < *madd- < IE *motnó-;
  • Norw. måre ‘woodworm’, mære ‘mite’ < *maþran-, *maþrjan- < *mótr-;
  • ON maðkr ‘maggot’, ME maðek, MLG maddike, meddeke < *maþníkan- < IE *motnég-;
  • Eng. maddock < IE *motnúg-;
  • Eng. maggot < IE *moknúd-;
  • ME mawke, Eng. mawkish < *magk- < IE *mokug-;
  • OE moþþe, moððe ‘moth’, Eng. moth < IE *mútn-;
  • ON motti ‘moth’, MDu. motte, Du. mot < *mutta- < IE *mutnó-;
  • MHG motte, mutte, Germ. Motte ‘moth’ < *mudda- < IE *mutnó-;
  • OE Northumbrian mohðe ‘moth’, Eng. Scot. mogthe < IE *múket-;
  • perhaps Skr. matkuna- ‘bug’ < IE *motkuno-;
  • perhaps Eng. bot ‘parasitical worm or maggot’, butter-fly < IE *bhutnó-.

mózg
  • Pol. mózg ‘brain’, arch. also ‘marrow’, CS mozgъ ‘marrow’, OPruss muzgeno, Skr. majján- ‘marrow, pith’, Av. mazga- ‘brain, marrow’, ON mergr ‘marrow’, OE mearh, Eng. marrow, OHG marag, marg, Germ. Mark ‘core, marrow, pulp’, MIr. medg ‘whey’, Welsh meidd, Fr. mègue (← Gal. *mesgā), Toch. mäśśunt ‘marrow’ < IE *mozgh-;
  • Pers. maγz ‘brain, fat, marrow, kernel’, Osset. mağz (irreg.);
  • Cz. mozek ‘brain’, S-Cr. mȍzak < irreg. or IE *moǵh-uk-;
  • Skr. smajján-, smajjā́ ‘marrow’ < IE *smozgh-;
  • Lith. smãgenys, smãgenės ‘brain, marrow’ < IE *smogh-;
  • Gr. smáō ‘I rub off, I wipe off’, smáomai ‘I rub myself with an ointment’, Lat. macula ‘stain, blot’ (*smə-tlā) < IE *smaH2-;
  • Lith. smársas ‘fat’, OIr. smiur ‘marrow’, Welsh mêr, OIc. smjǫr, smør ‘fat, butter’, OE smeoru ‘fat, grease, tallow’, Eng. smear, OHG smero ‘fat’, Germ. Schmer ‘kidney fat’, ON smyrsl ‘ointment’, OE smirels (<*smerwisla-), Gr. smýris ‘emery’, smýrnē ‘myrrh’, Toch. ṣmare ‘oil’ < IE *smer-, *smor-, *smorH-;
  • Bret. mel ‘marrow’ < IE *smel-;
  • Gr. mýron ‘salve, perfume’ < IE *mer-, *mor-;
  • Lat. medulla ‘marrow, pith, interior’ < IE *(s)medusl-;
  • Gr. bregmós, brégma ‘front part of the head’ < IE *mreg-;
  • Gr. brekhmós, brékhma ‘front part of the head’, Eng. brain, OE bræġen, MLG bragen, Du. brein, Av. mərəzu- ‘cervical vertebra’; OWelsh breithell, brithell ‘meninx’ < IE *mregh-, *mregh-t-, *mrogh-, *mr̥gh-;
  • Skr. mastr̥han- ‘brain’, Av. mastərəγan-, Pers. mastarg, masturg < IE *mostr̥ghe-;
  • OE mæst ‘fruit of forest trees used to feed pigs’, Eng. mast, OHG mast, Germ. Mast ‘fattening’, OIr. mess ‘acorns’, Welsh mes, Skr. médas- ‘fat’, Av. azdiia- ‘well-fed, fat’ < IE *mozd-, *mozd-tu-, *m̥zd-;
  • Gr. myelós ‘marrow’ < IE *musel-.

mrówka
  • MIr. moirb ‘ant’, Welsh myr, Lith. mervà ‘gadfly’, Pol. mrówka ‘ant’, ORuss. morovii, Slvn. mrávlja, mrȃv < OSlav *morv- < IE *merw-, *morwi-, *morwi-jo-, *morwi-kaH;
  • Pers. mōr < *morwo-ko-;
  • Osset. mælzyg, mulzug < IE *molwi-ko-;
  • Ukr. muraxa, Bruss. muraš < IE *mourā-ks-;
  • Av. maorīš, maoiri-, OSwed. mýra, myr, Eng. pis-mire < IE *mourī-, *meurion-;
  • OIc. maurr < IE *mouru-;
  • Russ. muravéj < IE *mourāwi-;
  • Gr. mýrmēks, mýrmos < IE *murmāk-, *murmo-;
  • Lat. formīca < IE *bhormīk-;
  • Gr. bórmāks < IE *bormāk-;
  • Gr. býrmāks < IE *burmāk-;
  • Gr. hórmikas < IE *wormikə-;
  • Skr. valmī́ka- ‘ant-hill’ < IE *wolm-;
  • Skr. vamrá- ‘ant’ < IE *womro-;
  • see also czerw.

mucha
  • Pol. mucha ‘fly’ < IE *mousā (*mouksā);
  • Pol. meszka ‘midge, black fly (Simulium)’, mszyca ‘aphid’, Lith. musià, mùsė, musìs < IE *musi-;
  • Lat. musca < IE *muksā (*muskā);
  • OS muggia ‘gnat’, OHG mucka, OE mycg, Eng. midge < IE *mukjā;
  • OIc. < IE *muHjā;
  • Gr. myĩa ‘fly’, Att. mỹa, Mod.Gr. mýga (irreg.) < IE *muHsjā;
  • Arm. mun < IE *muHson-;
  • perhaps also Lith. mãšalas ‘gnat’, mãkatas ‘black fly’, Skr. maśáka- ‘stable fly (Stomoxys), gnat’ < IE *moḱo-, *moko-;
  • Skr. mákṣ-, mákṣā, makṣikā ‘fly, bee’ < IE *moḱso-.

nać
  • Pol. nać ‘leaves and stems of vegetables’, Pruss. noatis ‘nettle’, Lith. natrė̃, nõterė, nõtrynė ‘t.s.’, Latv. nâtre ‘t.s.’ < IE *naHt-, *nat- (*nət-);
  • OIr. nenaid < *ninati- < IE *ninat-;
  • MWelsh dynat < IE *dinat-;
  • OCorn. linhaden, MBret. lenhat, Bret. linad < IE *linat-;
  • Eng. nettle, OE netele, Germ. Nessel, OHG nazza, nezzila < PG *nati-, Gr. adíkē < IE *nəd-, *n̥d-.

nagi
  • Pol. nagi ‘naked’, Lith. núogas, Skr. nagná-, OIr. nocht, Wel. noeth, Lat. nūdus (*nogʷedos), Goth. naqaþs, naqad-, Germ. nackt, Eng. naked, Hitt. nekumant- < IE *nogʷ-, *negʷ-;
  • Av. maɣna- < IE *mogʷ-;
  • Gr. gymnós < IE *gŏgʷ-;
  • Gr. lymnós (Hesychius), OIr. lomm, lommar, Wel. llwm < IE *logʷ-.

*nāu-
  • Gr. naũs, neõs ‘ship’, Lat. nāvis, Skr. nāu- < IE *nāu-;
  • OS naco ‘boat’, OHG nacho, Germ. Nachen, dial. Ache (irreg.) < IE *nag-.

Oka
  • Lat. aqua ‘water’, Goth. aƕa ‘river’, OIc. ó̦, OE ēa, OHG aha, Germ. Ache, OHG ouwa, -awa, Germ. Aue ‘wet meadow’, Russ. Oká (a river) < IE *H2ákʷ-aH2;
  • Lat. (← NG) Scandin-avia, OE īġ ‘island’, OS īeg, OIc. ey, OFris. ei-land (PG *agwjō) < IE *H2akʷ-jáH2;
  • OIc. ǽgir (*ēkʷjós) ‘god of the sea’, OE ǣg-weard ‘guard at sea’, ēagor ‘sea, high tide’ < IE *H2ēkʷ-;
  • Skr. kām ‘water’, Dac. koadáma ‘water pepper’ (*kʷa-dhēmn̥), Pol. Kwa (a river, from Illyr.) < IE *(H2)kʷa-;
  • Hitt. ekuzi ‘he drinks’, Toch. yok-tsi ‘to drink’, Lat. ebriolus ‘tipsy’, ēbrius ‘drunken’, Gr. nḗphō ‘I am sober’ < IE *H1egʷh-, *H1eH1gʷh-;
  • Toch. āp- ‘water, river’, Skr. ap-, āp- ‘water’, apya- ‘aquatic’, dvīpá- ‘island’, Lat. Āpulī, Gr. Mess-apía ‘between rivers’, ḗpeiros ‘land’, Pruss. ape ‘stream, river’, OHG uover ‘shore’, Germ. Ufer, OE ōfer, NG haf ‘sea’, Germ. Haff ‘gulf’ < IE *H2ap-, *H2āp-;
  • Skr. vāpī- ‘oblong pond’, Ligur. Vappincum, Lith. ùpė ‘river’, Pruss. wupyan ‘cloud’, OCS vapa ‘lake’ (*wōpā); Hitt. wappu- ‘shore of a river, wadi’ < IE *wop-, *wōp-;
  • Hitt. hap-, hapa- ‘river’, Lat. amnis ‘river’ (*abnis), OIr. aub, ab (*aba), abann, Welsh afon, Gaul Abona, Latv. Abava < IE *H2abh- (*H2ap-H3-?).

oko
  • Pol. oko ‘eye’, Toch. ak, Gr. óps, gen. opós ‘eye’, Gr. optós ‘seen’ < IE *H3okʷ- (-om, -os-, -to-);
  • Gr. ṓps ‘eye’, ópōpa (perf.) ‘I have seen’ < IE *H3ōkʷ-, *H3okʷ-H3ōkʷ-;
  • Lith. akìs ‘eye’, Pol. oczy ‘eyes’, Arm. ačʰ-kʰ, Gr. ósse (< *ókje), Alb. sy < IE *H3okʷ-i-(H1);
  • Lat. oculus, ocellus ‘eye’ < IE *H3okʷ-elo-;
  • Arm. akn < IE *H3okʷ-no-;
  • Skr. akṣi, gen. akṣṇas, Av. aši ‘eyes’ < IE *H3okʷ-si, -sn-;
  • Gr. óphthalmos ‘eye’, óphthēn (aor.pass.) ‘I was seen’ < IE *H3okʷ-dhl̥-mo-, *H3okʷ-dheH1-;
  • Gr.Beot. óktallos ‘eye’, Gr.Dor. optílos, óptillos < IE *H3okʷ-tl̥-no-, *H3okʷ-tlo-;
  • Eng. eye, OE ēaġe, Germ. Auge < IE *H3oukʷ-ōn-.

olej
  • Lat. laetus ‘flourishing, rich, happy’, Lat. lārgus ‘generous, bountiful’, lāridum, lārdum ‘bacon’ (? ↔ Gr. lārīnós ‘fattened, fat’, lārós ‘delicious, sweet’, superl. lărṓtatos, → Gr. lárdos ‘salted meat’) < IE *lai-, *lai-es-;
  • Eng. loam, OE lām, OS lēmo, OHG leim < *laima- < IE *lo(H)i-m-;
  • OIr. slíab ‘mountain, moor’ (< *slēbos-), Lat. salīva ‘salive, spittle’, Lith. slíekas ‘earthworm’, Pruss. slayx < IE *sleHi-, *slHiH-;
  • Hitt. salik- ‘to touch, to have contact with’, OIr. sligid, slig ‘to hew, to strike’, OE slician, Eng. slick, sleek, OHG slihhan ‘to sneak’, OCS slьzъkъ ‘slippery’, Pol. śliski, śliz ‘loach (Barbatula)’, ślizgać się ‘to slip’ <IE *sleHi-ǵ-, *slHi-ǵ-;
  • OIr. slemon ‘polished, smooth, sleek’, Lat. līmō ‘I polish’, līmus ‘slime’, līmāx ‘snail’, Gr. leímaks ‘snail’, Eng. slime, OE, OIc., MHG slīm, OHG slīmen ‘to polish’, Pol. ślimak ‘snail, slug’, Russ. dial. slimák ‘snail’ < IE *sleHi-m-;
  • Pol. ślina ‘salive’, Russ. dial. slína, S-Cr. slȉna, Latv. sliẽnas < *sleHi-n-;
  • Pol. śluz ‘mucus’, Russ. sljuná ‘salive’ < *sleu-, *sleu-n-;
  • Pol. lepić ‘to stick, to glue, to mould’, lepki ‘sticky’, OCS pri-lьpěti, pri-lьpljǫ ‘to stick’, Lith. lìpti, limpù ‘to stick, to be sticky’, Skr. limpati ‘he smears, sticks, adheres’, Goth. bileiban ‘to stay’, OHG bilīban ‘to stay, to remain, to stop’, Germ. bleiben, Goth. liban ‘to live’, Eng. live, Germ. leben, Gr. lípa ‘fat’ (adverb), lípos, gen. lípeos ‘fat’, liparós ‘fat, gleaming of oil’ (adj.), Lat. lippus ‘having watery or inflamed eyes’, Toch. lipā- ‘to be left over’ < IE *leip-, *loip-, *lip-, *lipH2-;
  • Lat. lībāre ‘to pour a libation’, dēlibūtus ‘imbued, thickly smeared’, Gr. leíbō ‘I pour’ < *leib- (related to *leH1i- ‘to pour’?);
  • Pol. olej ‘oil’ (← Lat. oleum), Eng. oil ← OFr. oile ← Lat. oleum ← Gr. élaion, élaiwon, Eng. olive, Pol. oliwa ← Lat. olīva ← Gr. elaíā, *elaíwā ‘olive tree’, Arm. ewł ‘oil’ < IE *H1elaiw-;
  • Gr. Cypr. élphos ‘butter’ < IE *H1elbh-;
  • Gr. élpos ‘olive oil, rendered fat’, ólpē ‘leather bottle for olive oil’ < IE *H1elp-;
  • Toch.B ṣalype ‘fat, oil’, Lat. sulpur ‘sulphur’, Eng. salve, OE sealfe, OHG salba, Skr. sarpíṣ- ‘molten butter, lard’, sr̥prá- ‘greasy’, Alb. gjalpë ‘butter’ < IE *selp-;
  • Gr. áleipha, áleiphar, gen. aleíphatos ‘unguent, oil’, aloiphḗ ‘anointing, ointment, grease’, aleíphō ‘I anoint the skin with oil’ < IE *H2leibh-;
  • Lat. adeps, gen. adipis ‘fat, lard’, Umbr. ařepes, ařipes < IE *Hadep- (a borrowing from Greek?, cf. Hitt. apuzzi ‘animal fat, tallow’);
  • Lat. linō ‘I grease’, littera ‘letter’, OIr. lenaid, len ‘to stay, to glue, to follow’, Welsh llynu ‘to infect, to pollute, to corupt, to besmear’ < IE *H2li-, *H2lin-;
  • Hitt. ḫalīna ‘clay’, Gr. alī́nō ‘I anoint the skin with oil’ < IE *H2liHn-;
  • Gr. kólla ‘glue’, MDu., MLG helen ‘to stick’, Pol. klej ‘glue’, CS klějь, *klьjь < IE *koli-, *kloi-, *kli-;
  • Pol. gliwieć ‘to go mouldy’, glej ‘glia’, Russ. glej ‘clay, loam’, dial. glev ‘slime of fish’, S-Cr. dial. glȇj ‘type of clay’, Lith. glitùs ‘sticky’, gliẽti ‘to putty’, (dial.) glejù ‘I smear’, gléima ‘slime’, gliemežỹs ‘snail’, OE clæġ ‘loam, clay’, Eng. clay, glue ← Lat. glūten, *glūs, gen. *glūtis ‘glue’, glittus ‘sticky, cohesive, penurious’, Gr. glískhros ‘t.s.’, glískhrasma ‘glue’, gloiós ‘glutinous substance, glue’ (< *gloiwós), glíā ‘glue’, glíttos ‘sticky’, glítton ‘gum’, glíkhomai ‘I stick to; I long for’, Fr. glaise ‘clay’ ← Gaul. *glēssā (< *gleid-tā-), MIr. glóed ‘glue’ (< *gloido-) < IE *glei-, *gloi-, *gli- or *gleHi- etc.;
  • Pol. glina ‘clay’, Cz. hlína, Bulg. glína, Russ. glen′ ‘moisture, juice’, OCS glěnъ ‘slime’, Lith. gléinė ‘moist clay’, OHG klenan ‘to stick, to smear’, OIr. glenim ‘t.s.’, Gr. glínē ‘glue’ < IE *glein-, *gloin- *glin- or *gleHin- etc.

orzech
  • Pol. orzech ‘nut’, Alb. arrë < IE *HaroiHso-;
  • Lith. ríešas < IE *HroiHso-;
  • Gr. (Hes.) árya ‘nuts’ < IE *kHruH-;
  • Gr. káryon ‘walnut’ < IE *kHruH-;
  • OIr. cnú ‘nut’, Welsh cneuen, pl. cnau < IE *knuH-;
  • Lat. nux, gen. nucis < IE *knuk-;
  • Eng. nut, OE hnutu, ON hnot, Germ. Nuss, OHG nuz < IE *knud-.

osa
  • OCS, Pol. osa ‘wasp’, Russ. osá, S-Cr. òsa < IE *Hobhs-;
  • OCorn. guhi-en, OHG wafsa, OE wæfs, wæps, Av. vaβžaka- ‘scorpion’, Pruss. wobse, Lith. dial. vapsà ‘wasp’, Cz. vosa < IE *wobhs-;
  • Bavar. webes < IE *wobhis-;
  • Lith. vapsvà < IE *wobhsw-;
  • Dan. hveps, Norw. kvefs < IE *kwebhs-;
  • Gr. psḗn, gen. psēnós ‘gall wasp’ < IE *bhs-ēn-;
  • Lat. vespa ‘wasp’, Germ. Wespe, OE wæsp, Eng. wasp < IE *wesp-, *wosp-;
  • Span. avispa < IE *Hawesp-;
  • Gr. sphḗks, gen. sphēkós < IE *sbh-ēk-;
  • cf. also Chuv. săpsa ‘wasp’.

paproć
  • Pol. paproć ‘fern’, Russ. páporot′, Bulg. páprat < IE *pōporəti-;
  • OCz. kарrаtiе, Slvk. kарrаtiе < IE *kōporəti-;
  • Slvk. рарrаdiе < IE *pōporəd(h)i-;
  • Cz kарrаd < IE *kōporəd(h)i-;
  • Lith. papártis < IE *poporəti-;
  • Lith. papar̃tis, papartỹs < IE *poporti-;
  • Latv. paparde, paparda < IE *poporəd(h)-;
  • Latv. paparske, paparkste, paparksts < IE *poport-k-;
  • Skr. párpaṭa- ‘a species of medicinal plant (Helyotis, Mollugo)’ < IE *porporto-;
  • Gr. ptéris, ptéreōs; pterís, pterídos < IE *pteri-, *pterid-;
  • Eng. fern, OE fearn, OHG farn < IE *porno-;
  • OHG farm < IE *pormo-;
  • Gaul ratis, Ir. raith, Wel. rhedyn, Bret. raden < IE *prəti-.

pąć
  • OPol. pąć ‘way, path’ (cf. Pol. pątnik ‘pilgrim’), OCS pǫtь, Lat. pons, gen. pontis ‘bridge’, Gr. pátos ‘path’, póntos ‘sea’ (orig. ‘way across the sea’) < IE *pont-, *pn̥t-;
  • Eng. path, Germ. Pfad < PG *paþa- < IE *bot-;
  • perhaps further related to Eng. foot, Lat. pēs, ped-, Gr. poũs, pod- < IE *pod-, *ped-.

pchła
  • Pol. pchła ‘flea’ (irreg.), OPol. błeszka, Russ. bloxá < PS *blъxa, Lith. blusà < IE *blusaH, *bhlusaH;
  • Alb. plesht, Arm. lu, Skr. plúṣi- < IE *plus-;
  • Gr. psýlla, psýllēs < IE *psul-;
  • Lat. pūlex, gen. pūlicis < IE *pusl-;
  • Eng. flea, OE fleah < PG *flaux- < IE *plouk-;
  • OE loppe, OSwed. loppa < IE *lubn-on-.

pięć
  • Pol. pięć ‘five’, OCS pętь, Lith. penkì, Skr. pañca, Gr. pénte < IE *penkʷe;
  • Lat. quinque < IE *kʷenkʷe;
  • Goth. fimf < IE *pempe.

pięść
  • Pol. pięść, Germ. Faust, Eng. fist < PG *funxʷ-sti- < IE *pn̥kʷsti- (cf. Eng. finger < *fungʷ-r-);
  • Gr. pygmḗ < IE *pŏgʷm-;
  • Lat. pugnus ‘fist’ < IE *pŏgʷn-;
  • Lith. kùmštis, Pruss. kuntis ‘fist’ < *kūmpstis, Eng. hand < IE *kn̥Hp-sti-, *konp-stu-.

płakać
  • Pol. płakać ‘to weep’, opłakiwać ‘to mourn, to lament’, Lith. plàkti, plakù ‘to whip’, plõkis ‘flogging, a hit with a rod’, Gr. plḗssō < *plākjō ‘I hit’, OIc. flaga ‘sudden attack’, flögra ‘to flutter’, Eng. flaw < *plāk-;
  • Gr. plḗgnȳmi ‘I hit’, plēgē ‘a hit’, Lat. plangere ‘to hit’, Goth. flōkan ‘to mourn, to beat one’s breast’, OIc. flóki ‘felt’, flökra ‘to loaf’, Germ. Fluch ‘curse’ < *plāg-.

płuco
  • Pol. płuco ‘lung’, Cz. plíce (pl.), OCS plušta, pljušta (pl.), Pruss. plauti, Lith. plaũčiai, Latv. plàušas, plàuši (and irreg. plaûkšas, plaukši), Gr. pléumōn < IE *plouti-, *pleuti-, *pleumon-;
  • Gr. pnéumōn < IE *pneumon-;
  • Lat. pulmō < IE *pulmon-;
  • Skr. klóman-, kloma- ‘the right lung’ < IE *kʷleumon-, *kʷleumo-;
  • cf. śledziona.

*pod-
  • Eng. fat, vat, Germ. Fass ‘barrel’, OHG faʒ, ON fat ‘pot, cover, clothes’, PG *fata- ‘pot’, Lith. púodas < IE *podos;
  • Lat. pōtus ~ pottus ‘mug, drinking utensil’ < IE *pōtos.

*pot-
  • Pol. potężny ‘powerful’, Lat. potis ‘powerful’, hospes, gen. hospitis ‘friend, guest, host’, nepōs, gen. nepōtis ‘grandson’, Gr. pósis, póssis ‘spouse’, pótnia ‘mistress, woman ruler’, despótēs ‘master of the house, ruler, possessor’, Skr. pati- ‘spouse, husband’, Lith. pàts ‘spouse, -self’, viẽšpats ‘master’ < IE *pot-;
  • Pol. gospodarz ‘master of the house, host’, Russ. gospód′ ‘master’ < IE *podh-;
  • Gr. despózō ‘to reign, to rule’, népodes ‘progeny, descendants’ < IE *pod-;
  • perhaps Pol. pani ‘lady, mistress’ (with -a- according to Winter’s rule before *-d-; cf. Gr. pótnia, déspoina ‘mistress’) < IE *pod-niH.

pół
  • Pol. pół ‘half’ < IE *polu-;
  • Lith. pùs < IE *pu-;
  • Skr. phálati ‘it splits in two’ < IE *pHol-;
  • Lat. spolium ‘prey, detached animal skin’ < IE *spol-;
  • Eng. half < IE *kolp-.

prosię
  • Pol. prosię ‘young pig’, Lith. par̃šas ‘young pig, castrated boar’, Av. pərəsa- ‘young pig’, Kurd. purs, OHG farah, OE fearh, Eng. farrow, MIr. orc, Lat. porcus, maybe also Arm. ors ‘hunt, catch, hunted animal, game’, Gr. pórkos ‘kind of fishing net’ < IE *porḱ-;
  • OIr. torc ‘boar’, Welsh twrch, Av. θβərəsa- < IE *turḱ-, twr̥ḱ-;
  • Goth. bargs ‘pig’, Eng. barrow, OHG barug, barh ‘boar’, OIc. bǫrgr, Germ. Barch < IE *bhoruḱ-;
  • Russ. bórov ‘barrow, castrated boar’, OPol. browek, PS *borvъ < IE *bhorw-;
  • Eng. boar, OE bār, OS bēr, Dutch beer, OHG bēr, WG *bairaz < IE *bhoiro-;
  • OSwed. basse ‘little boar’, ON val-bassi < IE *bhorsi-;
  • see also baran.

pytać
  • Pol. pytać ‘to ask a question’ < IE *pū-t-;
  • Pol. pewny ‘sure, certain’, ufać (< u-pwać) ‘to trust’, zuchwały (< z-u-pwały) ‘audacious’ < IE *puw-;
  • Cz. ptát se ‘to ask a question’, Lat. putāre ‘to think, to believe, to wonder, to estimate’ < IE *pu-t-;
  • Eng. put (← Lat., but meaning!);
  • Toch. A putk- ‘to deem, to distinguish’ < IE *pu-t-k-;
  • perhaps Gr. peúthomai ‘I find out’, pynthánomai ‘I inquire, I ask’ < IE *peut-H-, *pu-n-t-H-, as a rule brought out of *bheudh-, *bhu-n-dh- ‘to be conscious’ (meaning!);
  • Eng. bid ‘to wish, to make sb. to do sth., to offer’, OE bēotan, Germ. bieten < IE *bheudh-;
  • Eng. bid ‘to invite’, OE biddjan, Germ. bitten ‘to ask sb. to do sth.’, Gr. pothéō ‘I miss, I long, I desire’ < IE *bhedh-j-, *bhodh-;
  • maybe OIr. guidid ‘to pray’ < IE *gʷhedh-;
  • Eng. hope, Dutch hoopen, Swed. hoppas, Germ. hoffen < IE *kup-n-;
  • maybe also Lat. opīnārī ‘to think, to believe, to suppose’ < IE *H3opei-n-.

rak
  • Gr. karkínos ‘crab’, Skr. karkata ‘astacus’, karka ‘crab’ < IE *kark-;
  • Lat. cancer ‘astacus’ < IE *kank-;
  • Pol. Russ. rak ‘astacus’, Lith. érkė, árkė ‘a species of acarines’, Latv. ẽrce ‘cattle tick; wooden horse’ < IE *HarHko- (or *raHko-);
  • Lat. ricinus ‘a species of a big tick’ < IE *HrHk-;
  • Gr. akarí ‘acarine, mite, tick’ < IE *Hkar-.

sarna
  • Pol. sarna ‘roe’, Russ. sérna ‘chamois’, ORuth. sьrna ‘roe’, Gr. kárnos ‘breeding animal, sheep’, Lith. šérnas ‘wild boar’ < IE *ḱrH2n-;
  • Lith. stìrna ‘roe’ < IE *strH2.

serce
  • Pol. serce ‘heart’, OCS srьdьce (< PS sьrdьce), Pol. osierdzie ‘pericardium’, miłosierdzie ‘mercy, charity’, serdeczny ‘hearty, cordial’, środek ‘middle’, wśród ‘among’, średni ‘mean, average’, środa ‘Wednesday’, środowisko ‘environment’, Pruss. seyr ‘heart’, Lith. širdìs ‘heart’, Latv. sir̂ds ‘heart, bravery, anger’, Goth. haírtō ‘heart’, Germ. Herz, Eng. heart, Lat. cor, gen. cordis, OIr. cride, Ir. croidhe, Welsh craidd ‘heart, middle point’, Bret. kreiz ‘centre’, Gr. kardíā, kradíā, kẽr, kéar (false archaism), kradáō ‘swing, brandish’, Arm. sirt ‘heart’, instr. srtiv, Hitt. ker, kard-, karz, kir, gen. kartijaš; MIr. cretair ‘relic’, MWelsh creir, Welsh crair; Skr. śraddhā- ‘confidence, devotion’, Lat. crēdō ‘I believe’ (< *krezdō- < *ḱred-dhē-), OIr. cretim ‘I believe’, Welsh credaf, Corn. crežy, MBret. cridiff, Mod.Bret. credi ‘believe’ < IE *ḱērd-, *ḱrd-, *ḱred-, *ḱred-rā, *ḱred-dhē-;
  • Skr. kārdi- ‘heart’ < IE *kʷrd- (borrowed?);
  • Skr. hr̥d-, Av. zərədā ‘heart’, Gr. khordḗ ‘gut, catgut, string, sausage’, Av. zrazdā- ‘believe’ < IE *ǵhord-, *ǵhrd-, *ǵhred-dhē-;
  • Lith. žárna, žarnà ‘guts, leather bag, hose’, pl. žárnos ‘intestines’, Alb. zorrë ‘gut’, ON gǫrn ‘t.s.’, pl. garnar, OHG garn ‘yarn made of dried gut’, Eng. yarn, Lat. hernia ‘rupture’ < IE *ǵhorH-n-;
  • Lat. haru-spex ‘diviner, soothsayer’, Skr. hira- ‘band’, hirā ‘vein’ < *ǵhrH-u-, *ǵhrH-o-;
  • Russ. grud′ ‘breast’, OPol. grądź (< PS grǫdь), Lat. grandis ‘grand, great’, Gr. brénthos ‘conceit, pride’, Arm. argand ‘whirl, vortex’ < IE *gʷrendh-;
  • Gr. phrḗn, gen. phrenós ‘midriff, diaphragm, soul, mind, heart’, phrázomai ‘think, consider’, aor. péphrade; apophrás, gen. apophrádos ‘unlucky, wicked’ < IE *gʷhren-, *gʷhrnd-;
  • further connections to hard are possible.

skrzydło
  • OPol. krzele ‘gill, fin’, OCS krilo ‘wing’ < IE *krei-, *kroi-;
  • Pol. skrzydło ‘wing’, skrzele ‘gill’, Lith. skríeti ‘rotate, circle, fly’ < IE *skrei-, *skroi-;
  • Russ. kryłó ‘wing’ < IE *kruH-;
  • possible further connections to krąg, krzywy.

słońce
  • Pol. słońce < PS *sъlnь-ko < IE *sl̥n-;
  • Lat. sōl < IE *swoHl-;
  • Gr. hḗlios < IE *sweHl-;
  • Gr. Hom. ēélios, Dor. āélios < IE *seHwel-;
  • Lith. sáulė, ON sowulo, Swed. sol < IE *souHl-;
  • Skr. súvar, gen. sū́ras < IE *suHel- ~ *suHl-;
  • Goth. sugil ‘the rune s’, OE syʒel ‘sun’ < IE *sukel-;
  • Eng. sun, Germ. Sonne < IE *sn̥n-.

sok
  • Lat. sūcus ‘juice’, Mbret. sunaff, Welsh sugnedydd ‘pump’, Pol. ssać ‘to suck’, OCS sъsati, Welsh sugno, OIc. súga, OE, OHG sūgan < IE *seuḱ-n-, *souḱ-o-, *suḱ-, *sūḱ-;
  • Latv. sùkt ‘to suck’, Pol. sutek ‘nipple’ (alone in Slavic) < IE *souk-t-, *suk-;
  • Lat. sūgere ‘to suck’, MDutch sūcen, En. suck, OE sūcan, socian ‘suck up’, Lat. sūmen ‘sow’s udder’ < IE *seuǵ-, *suǵ-, *sūǵ-;
  • Pol. sok ‘juice’, Lith. sãkas ‘tar drop’, Gr. hopós ‘tree juice’, Alb. gjak ‘blood’ < IE *sokʷ-o-;
  • Lith. svekas ‘tar’ < IE *swekʷ-o-.

swoboda
  • Pol. swoboda ‘freedom’, Russ. svobóda ‘freedom, liberty’, ORuth. svobóda ‘liberty’, OCS svobьstvo ‘person’ < PS *svob- < IE *swobh-;
  • Pol. osoba ‘person’, OCS sobьstvo ‘t.s.’ < PS *sob- < IE *sobh-;
  • OPol. świeboda ‘freedom’, Świebodzice = Freiburg < PS *svěboda < IE *swēbh-;
  • Russ. slobodá ‘settlement of free farmers’, ORuth. slobóda ‘personal liberty, not serfdom’ < PS *sloboda < IE *slobh-;
  • Eng. self, Goth. silba ‘alone, by oneself’ < IE *selbh-.

syty
  • Pol. syty ‘satiated, well-fed’, perh. Hitt. sunnai ‘he fills’ < IE *sūt-;
  • perh. Pol. suty ‘lavish, copious’, sowity ‘lavish, ample’ < IE *səut-, *səwīt-;
  • Lith. sotùs ‘satiated’, Latv. sãts ‘nutritive’, Goth. sōþ ‘satiation’ < IE *sāt-;
  • Lat. satis ‘enough’, satur ‘satiated, full’, Gr. áatos ‘insatiable’, Ir. sathach ‘satiated’ < IE *sət-,
  • perh. Gr. hádēn, Ion. ádēn ‘enough’ < IE *səd-.

szczur
  • Pol. szczur ‘rat’, Gr. skíouros ‘squirrel’ (→ Lat. sciūrus) < IE *skjouro-, *skiouro-;
  • Eng. squirrel, ME squirl, Fr. écureuil < Lat. *scūriolus < IE *skourjo-;
  • Lith. žiùrkė ‘rat’ < IE *ǵ(h)jur-.

szuja
  • Pol. szuja ‘rogue, scoundrel’, OCS šujь ‘left (not right)’, Skr. savya- < IE *seujo-; also Welsh aswy, aseu < IE *adseujo-;
  • Gr. skaiós, skaiwós ‘left’, Lat. scaevus, Thrac. skaivas < IE *skaiwo-;
  • OIc. skeika ‘to make a detour’ < IE *skaigo-;
  • MHG schiec ‘slanting, contorted’ < IE *skaiko-;
  • Germ. schief ‘slanting, contorted’ < IE *skaipo-.

śledziona
  • Pol. śledziona ‘spleen’ < *sledena < IE *seldhen-;
  • OPol. śleziona, OCS slězena < †selzen-, OIr. selg < IE *selǵhen-;
  • Russ. selezënka, Ukr. selezínka < †sьlezen- < IE *sileǵhen- (†selzen- should yield **solozen-);
  • Skr. plīhán-, Av. spərəzan- < IE spl̥Hǵhen-
  • Lat. lien < IE spliǵhen-;
  • Gr. splḗn (→ Eng. spleen), gen. splēnós < IE *spleHn-;
  • Gr. splánkhna ‘intestines’ < IE *splənǵhn-;
  • Arm. phaicałn ‘spleen’ < IE *spaiǵaln-;
  • Lith. blužnìs, Pruss. blusne < IE *bhluǵhn-;
  • cf. płuco.

świnia
  • Pol. świnia ‘pig’, Av. (gen.), Alb. thi, Eng. sow, swine, Germ. Sau, Schwein, Toch. B suwo, Gaul. sutegis ‘pigsty’, Lat. sūs ‘pig’, Gr. hỹs < IE *suH-, *suHiH-;
  • Skr. sūkara ‘boar’, Pers. xūk, Lat. sūcula ‘young pig’ < IE *suHk-;
  • OE sugu ‘sow’ < IE *suk-,
  • Swed. sugga, OIr. soc, socc ‘snout’, Mid.Wel. huch, hwch ‘pig’, Bret. houc’h, PCelt. *sukko- ‘pig’ < IE *sukk-;
  • Gr. sỹs with irregular s- (? < *kj-, cf. Lith. kiaũlė ‘pig’).

targ
  • Pol. targ ‘market place’, Russ. torg ‘market, trade’, Lith. tur̃gus ‘market place’ < PBS *turgus < IE *tr̥gu-;
  • Latv. tìrgus < PBS *tirgus < IE *tr̥gu-;
  • Venet. Tergéste ‘Triest’, Opitergium, Illyr. tergitio ‘merchant’ < IE *tr̥g-;
  • Alb. tregë ‘market place’ < IE *treg-;
  • see also gród.

truteń
  • Pol. truteń ‘drone’, OPol. trut, trucień < IE *trout- (-ini-, -uni-);
  • OPol. tręteń, tręt < IE *tront- (-uni-);
  • OPol. trudeń < IE *troudh- (-uni-);
  • OPol. trąd ‘drone, kind of gadfly’ < IE *trondho-;
  • Lith. trãnas ‘drone’ < IE *trono-;
  • OE dran, Eng. drone, OS dren, drāno, OHG trëno (Germ. Drohne from MLG), Gr. thrḗnē, thrēnṓdēs, thrõnaks < IE *dhrēn-, *dhron-, *dhrōn-;
  • Gr. tenthrēdṓn ‘kind of wasp’ < IE *dhendhrēd-;
  • Gr. tenthrḗnē < IE *dhendhrēn-;
  • Gr. tethrēniṓdēs < IE *dhedhrēn-;
  • Gr. athrḗnē < IE *Hdhrēn- (*Hndhrēn-);
  • Gr. anthēdṓn ‘bee’ < IE *Handhēd-;
  • Gr. anthrēdṓn ‘hornet’ < IE *Handhrēd-.
  • Gr. anthrḗnē ‘bee, wasp’ < IE *Handhrēn-;
  • Gr. pemphrēdṓn ‘wasp’ < IE *bhembhrēd-;
  • Eng. bumble < IE *bhombhl-.

twardy, tworzyć
  • Pol. tworzyć ‘create’, twór ‘creature’, OCS zatvorъ ‘bolt for closing the door’, Pol. twarz ‘face’, Lith. ãptvaras ‘fence’, tvérti, tveriù ‘take, catch, create, build, form (cheese), fence in, enclose’, turė́ti ‘have’, perhaps Gr. sorós ‘urn, coffin’ < IE *twer-, *twer-H-, *twor-, *twōr-i-, *tur-;
  • Pol. twardy ‘tough, hard’, twierdza ‘fortress’, twierdzić ‘assert, affirm’, Russ. tvërdyj ‘tough, hard’, Gr. sárdion ‘sard, carnelian, carneol, a kind of precious stone’ (< Persian?), Germ. Quarz ‘quartz’, MHG quarz, PG *þwart- < IE *twr̥-d-, *twor-d-;
  • Lith. tvìrtas ‘strong, firm, healthy, hard, durable’, Latv. tvirts ‘strong, hard’ < IE *twr̥Ht-;
  • perhaps Pol. twaróg ‘cottage cheese’ < IE *twōr-ogh-;
  • perhaps Pol. trzymać ‘hold’, OPol. trzmieć ‘protrude, project’ < IE *tr-m-;
  • perhaps Lat. dūrus ‘strong, hard’ < IE *duHr-;
  • perhaps Goth. hardus ‘hard’, Gr. kratýs ‘strong’ < IE *kr̥tu-;
  • Skr. dhar- ‘hold, keep, bear, support’, Lith. darýti ‘do’ < IE *dher-, *dhor-;
  • Lat. firmus ‘firm, strong’, Skr. dhárman- ‘law, fixed order’ < IE *dher-mo-;
  • Lat. formāre ‘form, create’, formāticus ‘cheese’, confirmāre ‘confirm, prove’ < IE *dh(w)or-m-;
  • Lat. fōrma ‘form, shape’ < IE dh(w)ōr-m-;
  • Gr. morphḗ ‘form’ < IE *mordhw-;
  • further connection to heart is possible.

wąż
  • Lat. anguis ‘snake’, MIr. esc-ong ‘eel, water snake’, Welsh llys-yw-en (-yw- < *angwi-), OHG unk ‘snake’, MHG unk, unke (< *ungwō, *unkaz), Arm. awj, Lith. angìs, Latv. uòdzs ‘adder’, Pol. wąż ‘snake’ < IE *Hangʷhi-, *Hn̥gʷhi-;
  • Gr. ékhis, ékhidna ‘viper’, OHG egi-dehsa ‘lizard’ < IE *Heghi-;
  • Gr. óphis ‘snake’, Skr. ahi-, Av. aži ‘snake, dragon’ < IE *Hogʷhi-;
  • Arm. ‘snake’ < IE *Hēgʷhi-;
  • see also węgorz.

wesz
  • Pol. wesz ‘louse’, Russ. voš′, S-Cr. vȃš < IE *usi-;
  • Slvn. ȗš, S-Cr. ȗš < IE *ousi-;
  • Eng. louse, Welsh llau < IE *luHs-;
  • Lith. utė̃, Latv. uts < IE *uti-;
  • Skr. yū́kā < IE *jūkā-;
  • cf. unclear Lat. pēdis (< *pesdi-?), Gr. phtheír (< *dhgʷhesir-?).

węgorz
  • Lat. anguīlla, anguīla ‘eel’, OHG angar ‘corn weevil’, Germ. Engerling ‘cockchafer grub’, Lith. ungurỹs ‘eel’, Pol. węgorz, Slvn. ogor ‘sea eel, conger (Conger sp.)’ < IE *Hangʷhro-, *Hangʷhor-i-, *Hn̥gʷhŏr-i-, *Hangʷhīn-l-;
  • Gr. énkhelys ‘eel’ < IE *Henghel-u-;
  • Lat. conger ‘conger’ < IE *kongʷro-;
  • Gr. góngros < IE *gongʷro-;
  • see wąż.

wieprz
  • Pol. wieprz ‘hog’, Latv. vepris ‘castrated hog’ < IE *wepri-;
  • Germ. Eber ‘boar’, OE eofor, OIcel jǫfurr ‘prince’ (figuratively; PG *ebura- ‘knur, wieprz, dzik’), Thrac. ébros ‘he-goat’ < IE *ep[u]ro-;
  • Lat. aper ‘hog’ < IE *Hapr- (cf. Akk. appāru ‘wild boar’);
  • OIcel hafr ‘he-goat’, OE hæfer, Gr. kápros ‘hog’, Lat. caper ‘he-goat’, capra ‘goat’, Welsh caer-iwrch ‘roebuck’, OIr. caera ‘ram, sheep’ < IE *kapr-;
  • Gall. gabros ‘he-goat’, Ir. gabhar, Welsh gafr ‘goat’ < IE *ghabhr-;
  • cf. koza.

woda
  • Pol. woda ‘water’ (< -*dh-, Winter’s rule), OE wæd ‘water, lake, sea’, ġewæd ‘ford’, Lat. vadum ‘water, shallow water, ford’ < IE *wodh-;
  • Gr. hýdōr ‘water’, gen. hýdatos, Eng. water < IE *wŏdōr-, *wŏdnt-;
  • Skr. udaká-, gen. udná- < IE *udn-;
  • Lat. unda ‘wave’, Latv. ûdens ‘water’ < IE *wn̥dhā-, *wn̥dhō-;
  • ON uðr ‘wave’, pl. unnir, OE ýð ‘wave, flood’, OHG undea, PG *unþjō, *unðjō < IE *untjā-, *undhjā-;
  • Lith. vanduõ ‘water’ < IE *wondhō-.

wół
  • Hitt. *guwau ‘head of cattle, ox, cow’, toch. A ko, pl. kowi, OIr. , Gr. boũs, OHG chuo, kuo, Germ. Kuh, OSwed. , Skr. gáuḥ, Av. gāuš, Arm. kov, Latv. gùovs, Lith. gaujà ‘herd’, gúotas ‘t.s.’, OCS *govędo ‘head of cattle, ox, cow’, gu-mьno ‘barn’, Pol. gówno ‘shit’ (orig. ‘cow’s shit’) < IE *gʷouH-, acc. *gʷoHm (cf. Sumer. gu < gud ‘bull’);
  • OE , Eng. cow, OIc. kýr < IE *gʷuH-;
  • NG kvīgr ‘young bull’, Dutch kween < IE *gʷuHiH-;
  • Lat. bōs, gen. bovis < IE *bouH- (surely an Oskian loanword);
  • OWel. OCorn. buch, NWel. buwch, Bret. buc’h (< *boukkā), maybe Lat. vacca < IE *gʷoukH-;
  • Skr. vaśā ‘cow’, maybe Lat. vacca < IE *weḱH-;
  • OCS volъ ‘ox’, gen. volu, Pol. wół < IE *wolu- (with alternation *gʷ : w as well as u : l like in swoboda ~ słoboda, there exists hypotheses of Uralic or Altaic borrowing).

*wraHd-
  • Gr. rhíza ‘root’, Lesb. brísda, Myc. wriza < IE *wrid-j-;
  • ON virtr ‘wort’, OHG wirz < IE *wird-;
  • Goth. waúrts ‘root’ (< PG *wurti-), ON urt ‘herb’, OE wyrt ‘herb, plant’, ort-ġeard ‘orchard, garden’, Eng. wort, orchard, OHG wurz ‘root, herb, spice’, Gr. rhā́dīks, gen. rhā́dīkos ‘branch, twig’, rhádamnos ‘branch, twig, shoot’, Aeol. oródamnos, Gr. rhádamon ‘stalk, shoot’, rhadinós ‘taper, bendable, slender’, rhodanós ‘t.s.’, rhadalós ‘t.s.’, Lat. rādīx ‘root’, rāmus ‘branch, twig’, radius ‘rod, spoke, ray’, Welsh gwreiddyn ‘root’, gwraidd ‘roots’, gwrysg ‘branches’, Corn. gwreydh ‘root’ < IE *wraH2d-i-, *wr̥H2d-i-, *wr̥H2d-sko-;
  • Toch. B witsako ‘root’;
  • ON rót ‘root’ (→ Eng.), OSw. rót < IE *raH2d- (if it was *wraH2d-, then OSw. **vrót would be expected);
  • OE wrætte ‘madder, Rubia’, OHG rezza (< PG *wratjōn-), OIr. frén ‘root’, Ir. frém, Alb. rrëzë, rrënjë ‘root’ < IE *wrod-i-, *wr̥d-n-, *wr̥d-m-;
  • Welsh greddf ‘instinct’ (?);
  • Gr. brénthina ‘roots with which women redden their cheeks’ < IE *gʷrendH-i- (or *wr̥ndH-i-);
  • further connection to heart and hard is possible.

wrona
  • OIr., MWelsh bran ‘raven’, Gal. brano- < IE *gʷren-;
  • Lat. grāculus ‘jackdaw’, Eng. crow, OE crāwa, *crācian ‘to crow’, Germ. Krähe ‘crow’, OIc. krákr ‘raven’, kráka ‘crow’, Lith. gróti ‘to caw, to croak’, RuCS grakati, gračǫ < IE *gʷraH-;
  • Russ. žávoronok ‘skylark’ < IE *gʷeHworn-;
  • Ukr. žájvoronok < IE *gʷeHiworn-;
  • Pol. gawron ‘rook’, Cz. havran, S-Cr. gȁvrān < IE *gʷoHworn-;
  • Lith. žvìrblis ‘sparrow’, Latv. zvir̃bulis < IE *ǵwr̥Hbh-li-, *ǵwr̥Hbh-uli-;
  • LSorb. karwona ‘crow, rook’ < IE *kʷoHruwon-;
  • S-Cr. dial. kȁvran ‘raven’, Slvn. kȃvran, Lith. kóvarnis ‘rook, jackdaw’ < IE *kʷoHworn-;
  • Slvn. kavrána ‘crow, rook’ < IE *kʷoHworHn-;
  • Gr. Hesych. kóraphos (name of a bird) < IE *ḱorHbh-;
  • Gr. kóraks ‘raven’, Lith. šárka ‘magpie’, S-Cr. srȁka, Russ. soróka, Pol. sroka < IE *ḱorHk-;
  • Lat. cornīx ‘crow’, Gr. korṓnē < IE *ḱorHn-;
  • Lat. corvus ‘raven’ < IE *ḱorw-;
  • ON hrafn ‘raven’, OE hræfn, Eng. raven, OHG hrabo, rappo, Germ. Rabe < IE *ḱrobh-, *ḱrobh-nó-;
  • OE hrōc ‘rook, raven, jackdaw’, Eng. rook, Du. roek, OS hrōk, hrōka, OHG ruoh, ruoho ‘crow’, MHG ruoch, ruoche, ON hrókr ‘rook, crow’, Gr. krṓzō ‘I squawk’, Lith. krógti ‘to hawk’ < IE *kroHg-;
  • Gr. kraugḗ ‘cry, loud crying’, ON hraukr ‘rook, sea raven’, Goth. hruk ‘crowing’ < IE *kraug-;
  • Pol. kruk ‘raven’, OCS krukъ < IE *krouk-;
  • Skr. króśati ‘he screams, he cries’, Av. kraosaiti < IE *krouḱ-;
  • S-Cr. svrȁka ‘magpie’ < IE *ḱworHk-;
  • Gr. pérgoulos ‘a kind of bird’ < IE *perg-;
  • Gr. pyrgítēs ‘sparrow’ < IE *purg-;
  • Lat. pārus ‘titmouse’ < IE *peHr-;
  • Lat. passer ‘sparrow’ < IE *pHr-s-, *pttro- ?;
  • Lat. parra ‘a bird of ill omen’, poss. ‘sea eagle’, Umbr. parfa < IE *pHrs-, *prHs-;
  • Gr. psā́r, psḗr ‘starling’ < IE *psaHr-;
  • Cz. skřivan ‘skylark’ < IE *skreiwoHn-;
  • Pol. skowronek ‘skylark’, OCS skovranьcь < IE *skoworn-;
  • Gr. spérgoulos ‘a small field bird’, spérgys ‘wren’ (?), OHG sperche ‘sparrow’, Gr. sporgílos ‘a kind of bird’, Pruss. spurglis ‘sparrow’, spergle- < IE *sperg-, *sporg-, *spr̥g-;
  • Mod.Gr. spourgítēs ‘sparrow’ (irreg. -ou-);
  • Gr. spérkhnon ‘a raptor bird smaller than eagle’, MHG sperke ‘sparrow’ < IE *spergh-;
  • Goth. sparwa, OE spearwa, Eng. sparrow, OHG sparo, MHG spare, spaze (diminut.), Germ. Sperling, Spatz (diminut.), ON spǫrr < IE *spor(H)w-;
  • MBret. frao ‘crow’, Bret. fraw, Corn. frau, Gr. sparásion (*sparwasion?) ‘bird resembling a sparrow’ < IE *spraHu-, *sprHwo-;
  • Eng. warbler, Slvk. dial. vráb ‘sparrow’, Pol. wróbel, Russ. vorobéj ‘sparrow’, S-Cr. vrábac ‘sparrow’, Ukr. vorobéc′ < IE *worHbho-, *worHbh-uli-, *worHbh-ijo-, *worHbh-iko-;
  • Gr. rhóbillos ‘regulus’ < IE *wrob-;
  • Lith. várna ‘crow’, Russ. voróna, Pol. wrona < IE *worHn-;
  • Lith. var̃nas ‘raven’, OPol. wron, Russ. vóron < IE *worn-;
  • Eng. wren, OE werna, wrenna (< *wrandjan-), Ic. rindill, OHG wrendo, wrendilo < IE *wrendh-, *wrondh-.

wydra
  • Pol. wydra ‘otter’, Lith. údra, Eng. otter, Gr. hydrā ‘water snake’ < IE *udrā (BS before *d due to Winter’s rule);
  • Lat. lutra ‘otter’ < IE *lutrā.

ziemia
  • Pol. ziemia ‘earth, land’, Lat. humus < IE *dhǵhem-, *dhǵhom-;
  • Hitt. tekan, Gr. khthṓn, gen. khthonós < IE *dhǵhon-;
  • Gr. khamaí ‘on the ground’, Hitt. gimra-, gimmara ‘field, soil’, Skr. gmá-ḥ ‘of earth’ (gen. of kṣā́ḥ) < IE *ǵhĕm-.

żec
  • OPol. żec, żgę ‘light a fire’ (cf. Pol. pożoga ‘conflagration’) < PS *žeg- < IE *gʷhegʷh-;
  • Pol. zgaga ‘heartburn’ < PS *-gag- < IE *gʷhōgʷh-;
  • Pol. dziegieć ‘birch tar’, Old Cz. dahněti ‘to smoulder, to glow’ < PS *deg-, *dag-, Lith. dègti ‘to burn’, degùtas ‘birch tar’, dãgas ‘heat, glowing embers’, OIr. daig ‘fire’, Eng. day, Goth. dags ‘t.s.’, Skr. dáhati ‘burn’, Lat. foveō ‘I heat, I warm up; I nurse’, febris ‘fever’, Gr. téphrā ‘ash’ < IE dhegʷh-, dhōgʷh-.

żołądek
  • Gr. kholás, gen. kholádos ‘belly’, Pol. żołądek ‘stomach’ < IE *ghelondo-, *gholn̥d-;
  • Gr. kólon ‘gut’ < IE *kolo-;
  • Lith. skilándis ‘pig stomach’ < IE *skĕlond-;
  • Lith. skil̃vis ‘stomach, bird’s crop’, Latv. šķilva ‘hen stomach’ < IE *skl̥w-;
  • further connections possible, see głęboki, gʷelbh-.

żółć
  • Pol. żółć ‘bile’, Cz. žluč, Russ. žëlč′, OCS žlъčь < IE *ghlH3-ti-, *ghlH3-ki-;
  • OCS, ORuth. zlъčь, Latv. žul̂ts, žul̂kts, zul̂kts, Av. zāra-, En. gall, Germ. Galle, Gr. khólē ‘bile’, khólos ‘bitter hate’, Lat. helus, holus, olus n ‘vegetables’ < IE *ǵhlH3-, *ǵhlH3-ti-, *ǵhlH3-kti-;
  • Lat. fel, gen. fellis n ‘bile’ < IE *bhelH3-n-;
  • perhaps Lat. bīlis (→ En. bile), Welsh bustl, Bret. bestl < IE *bistl(H3)-;
  • Lith. tulžìs < IE *tlǵhH3-i-.

żywy
  • Pol. żywy ‘alive’, Lat. vīvus, Gr. bíos ‘life’ < IE *gʷīHʷ-wo-;
  • Gr. zõion ‘animal’ < IE *gʷjoHʷ-jo-;
  • Eng. quick, Thrac. kik- ‘agile’ < IE *gʷigʷ-jo-.

The Semitic languages

The source of a part of the examples given above is B.M. Grande, Vvedenie v izučenie semitskix jazykov, «Vostočnaja literatura», Moskva 1998.